Self-complexity and affective extremity: ..
94-120 self-complexity and affective extremity: don't put all of your eggs in one cognitive basket patricia w
"Self-Complexity and Affective Extremity: ..
How does the complexity–optimization trade-off apply to adult development and aging? Although the principle ideally works in a dynamic, flexible, and integrated way, some conditions can reduce flexible integration. Most important for our current purposes, normal developmental changes in cognitive resources can alter vulnerability to degradation of optimization and complexity. For example, as cognitive resources grow during the early life span, individuals are better able to maintain integrated behavior even when levels of activation are high. In contrast, as cognitive resources decline, individuals are more strongly affected by overactivation (; ).
Mullins-Nelson, J. L., Salekin, R. T., & Leistico, A. R. (2006). Psychopathy, empathy, and perspective-taking ability in a community sample: Implications for the successful psychopathy concept. International (2), 133-149. This study examined the relationship between psychopathy and two components of empathy including a cognitive component (e.g., perspective-taking ability) and an affective component (e.g., compassion) in a community sample. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory Short Form was used to assess psychopathy and several psychological measures were used to test empathy including the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy-2, and the Test of Self Conscious Affect -3. Across instruments, psychopathy (as a unitary construct) appeared to be negligibly correlated with perspective-taking scales and negatively correlated with the affective components of empathy. Findings indicated that the emotional deficits were noted most prominently for the behavioral component of psychopathy. Results also showed that higher psychopathy scores in community participants were linked to higher levels of antisocial conduct. . . . The findings from the current study roughly fit the clinical theory of psychopathy provided by Cleckley (1941) suggesting that psychopathic individuals may be able to use their emotions to guide their own behavior and to read the emotions in others. However, the deficits in affective empathy depend on the type of psychopathy evaluated (e.g., factor scores) and the gender of the individual. . . . The current study suggests that those individuals who may very well be considered "successful psychopaths" also act out in deviant and unlawful ways. Understanding the way in which psychopathic individuals function on an interpersonal level can provide numerous avenues for prevention and intervention programs that can serve to aid both the individual and the field of psychology. Early intervention might help reduce the likelihood that individuals with psychopathic characteristics will break the law and as a result, prevent such individuals from ending up in forensic mental health settings.
ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE APPROACHES TO DISEASE
Throughout the 1980s, the concept of control formed the core of perhaps the most influential theory of occupational stress (see, for example, the review of the work stress literature by Ganster and Schaubroeck 1991b). This theory, usually known as the Job Decision Latitude Model (Karasek 1979) stimulated many large-scale epidemiological studies that investigated the joint effects of control in conjunction with a variety of demanding work conditions on worker health. Though there has been some controversy regarding the exact way that control might help determine health outcomes, epidemiologists and organizational psychologists have come to regard control as a critical variable that should be given serious consideration in any investigation of psychosocial work stress conditions. Concern for the possible detrimental effects of low worker control was so high, for example, that in 1987 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the United States organized a special workshop of authorities from epidemiology, psychophysiology, and industrial and organizational psychology to critically review the evidence concerning the impact of control on worker health and well-being. This workshop eventually culminated in the comprehensive volume Job Control and Worker Health (Sauter, Hurrell and Cooper 1989) that provides a discussion of the global research efforts on control. Such widespread acknowledgement of the role of control in worker well-being also had an impact on governmental policy, with the Swedish Work Environment Act (Ministry of Labour 1987) stating that the aim must be for work to be arranged in such a way so that the employee himself can influence his work situation. In the remainder of this article I summarize the research evidence on work control with the goal of providing the occupational health and safety specialist with the following:
Her current research projects are i) on rights, public goods, solidarities and health reforms in complex developmental transitions and ii) on ethics and internationalization in higher education.
Chapter 34 - Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
In the course of their research, the authors reviewed many scientific findings that seemed to contradict one another. "Psychopathy has long been assumed to be a single personality disorder. However, there is increasing evidence that it is a confluence of several different personality traits," Skeem says. The authors of the monograph argue that rather than being "one thing" as often assumed, psychopathy appears to be a complex, multifaceted condition marked by blends of personality traits reflecting differing levels of disinhibition, boldness, and meanness. And scientific findings also suggest that a sizable subgroup of juvenile and adult offenders labeled as psychopathic are actually more emotionally disturbed than emotionally detached, showing signs of anxiety and dysphoria.
Raine, A. (1992). Schizotypal and borderline features in psychopathic criminals. (6), 717-721. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(92)90242-H This study tests the prediction that criminals with medium scores on the Psychopathy Checklist have a raised level of schizotypal traits [Hare & Forth (1985), Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 541-546], and the hypothesis that this sub-group are characterized by impulsivity and lack of planning [Heston (1970), Science, 167, 249-256]. Criminals were divided into low, medium and high groups on the Psychopathy Checklist and assessed on schizotypal and borderline personality, and self-report measures of schizotypal personality. Both predictions were supported. It is concluded that a clearer separation of psychopaths with and without schizotypal features in future studies of antisocial populations may help clarify our understanding of both of these criminal sub-groups.
BASES Conference 2017 – Programme and Abstracts: …
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The meaning and measurement of self-complexity - …
According to Supers career development model (Super 1957; Ornstein, Cron and Slocum 1989) the four career stages are based on the qualitatively different psychological task of each stage. They can be based either on age or on organizational, positional or professional tenure. The same people can recycle several times through these stages in their work career. For example, according to the Career Concerns Inventory Adult Form, the actual career stage can be defined at an individual or group level. This instrument assesses an individuals awareness of and concerns with various tasks of career development (Super, Zelkowitz and Thompson 1981). When tenure measures are used, the first two years are seen as a trial period. The establishment period from two to ten years means career advancement and growth. After ten years comes the maintenance period, which means holding on to the accomplishments achieved. The decline stage implies the development of ones self-image independently of ones career.
The meaning and measurement of self-complexity
The organizational socialization process is dynamic, interactive and communicative, and it unfolds over time. In this complexity lies the challenge of evaluating socialization efforts. Two broad approaches to measuring socialization have been proposed. One approach consists of the stage models of socialization (Feldman l976; Nelson l987). These models portray socialization as a multistage transition process with key variables at each of the stages. Another approach highlights the various socialization tactics that organizations use to help newcomers become insiders (Van Maanen and Schein l979).
Although this first hypothesis examined the choice of the SC-D ..
Dolan, M. (2008). Neurobiological disturbances in callous-unemotional youths. (6) 668. Recently, there has been growing interest in the utility of the construct of psychopathy as an alternative to ADHD for subtyping antisocial youths (3, 4). Psychopathy is a complex personality disorder that includes interpersonal and affective traits, such as glibness and lack of empathy, guilt, and remorse, and behavioral characteristics, such as impulsivity and poor behavioral control. Despite debate on the number of dimensions needed to capture the construct of psychopathy in adults, research in antisocial youths has highlighted a potentially useful distinction between the impulsive-conduct problem dimension of psychopathy and callous-unemotional traits (e.g., lack of empathy, lack of guilt, and callous use of others for personal gain.
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