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The social-stimulation hypothesis posits ..

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Social Psychology Chapter 8: Social Stimulation ..

Equation-based simulations are most commonly used in the physicalsciences and other sciences where there is governing theory that canguide the construction of mathematical models based on differentialequations. I use the term “equation based” hereto refer to simulations based on the kinds of global equations weassociate with physical theories—as opposed to “rules ofevolution” (which are discussed in the next section.) Equationbased simulations can either be particle-based, where there are n manydiscrete bodies and a set of differential equations governing theirinteraction, or they can be field-based, where there is a set ofequations governing the time evolution of a continuous medium orfield. An example of the former is a simulation of galaxyformation, in which the gravitational interaction between a finitecollection of discrete bodies is discretized in time and space. An example of the latter is the simulation of a fluid, such as ameteorological system like a severe storm. Here the system istreated as a continuous medium—a fluid—and a field representing itsdistribution of the relevant variables in space is discritized in spaceand then updated in discrete intervals of time.

This can be explained by the social stimulation hypothesis which can ..

Stage 2. — Evoking of the Articulate Elements by the Speech of Others (so-called `Imitation'). At this point the social influence enters the process of language development. If the ear-vocal reflexes have been sufficiently established for the sound of a word to call forth the response of articulating it, it is no longer necessary that the child himself should speak the stimulating word. It may be spoken by another. The effect will then be that of the child repeating the sounds which he hears others utter. This stage is suggested in Figure 19, B. It is, of course, assumed that only such speech responses as have been acquired through growth and practice will be evoked in this manner. The child does not imitate or duplicate the speech of his elders. There is evoked simply the nearest similar ear-vocal reflex which, with his present limitations of pronouncing, he has been able to fixate. The word "doll,' spoken by

Chapter 9: Social Stimulation — Facial and Bodily Expression

Based on results from animal studies, Bishop [] proposed that a down regulation of amygdala output may be brought about by two distinct process: i) through an excitation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) pathways within the basolateral complex of the amygdala, or ii) through an excitation of the nearby intercalated cells via mPFC neurons. In line with this view, clinical and neuroimaging results have demonstrated that selective attention is associated with emotion-related stimuli involved in dysfunctional prefrontal inhibition, and with amygdala hyperactivity during the processing of potentially threatening information from the environment [,].

The Mimetic Responses. Our discussion up to this point has been largely concerned with the motor side of the facial reactions, explained by Darwinian principles. There now remains the problem of their extension upon the afferent side. Originally evoked only by biologically prepotent stimuli (pain, noxious tastes, etc.), facial expressions come eventually to be produced in response to objects or situations, often social in character, which are merely to the original stimuli. The recognition of these analogies constitutes the of Wundt and Piderit.

"Social Stimulation — Facial and Bodily Expression ..

With this in mind, we developed a strategy for searching studies in the main data bases. The computer-supported search used the following databases: Scielo, Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycInfo and Cochrane Library. The search terms Panic disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive disorder, Post-traumatic stress disorder, Generalized anxiety disorder, Social anxiety disorder were used in combination with transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, rTMS, motor threshold, motor evoked potential, MEP, cortical excitability, neuroimaging. In addition, all reports including reviews, metaanalyses and controlled randomized clinical trials and open label trials, book chapters are also cited to provide readers with more details and references than can be accommodated within this paper. Discussion has been focused mainly on studies published in English and reported in the past 12 years but also included commonly referenced studies relevant to the neurobiology of the diseases and possible rationales for rTMS application in Social Phobia.

With regard to theoretical conceptualizations, the reported effects of rTMS over right PFC for reducing anxiety symptoms are possibly brought about by re-establishing the connectivity between an underactive PFC, which is theorized to mediate amygdala activity and amygdala hyperactivity, by increasing PFC activity, suggesting that high-rTMS might be an optimal treatment strategy. Alternatively, these results could be associated with increased activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, suggesting an association between right prefrontal and HPA axis hypoactivity. Given the effects of rTMS in depression, stimulation in the right PFC with high frequency would then theoretically worsen depressive symptoms that are generally comorbid, since hyperactivity of the HPA axis is commonly implicated in the pathogenesis of depression [].

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  • Requires social stimulation and audience or person to ..

    Kohlberg emphasized perspective taking and _____ as critical aspects of the social stimulation that ..

  • SAGE Reference - Stimulation Hypothesis

    repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, social anxiety disorders, valence hypothesis.

  • The effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior …

    07/05/2017 · The effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on cognitive health in ..

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The Faces of Facebookers: Investigating Social …

The Development of Language: Stage I. — Random Articulation with Fixation of Circular Responses. The marvelously intricate and versatile speech mechanism described earlier in this chapter is at birth, like other motor mechanisms, simply a crude possibility. Further growth of the nerves and muscles must combine with practice to produce a repertory of sounds adequate for language. With such development as a basis the social environment furnishes the stimuli necessary for the acquisition of perfected speech habits. The earliest used consonants, which, according to Miss Blanton, occur during the first month of life, are chiefly nasals and gutturals, such as m, g, and k (also h, w, and y). These represent easy mouth positions adopted probably as random movements. They are articulated with various long and broad vowel sounds, and with some diphthongs (double vowels), as in "gow" (writer's son at two months).

With a starting point in language as a social ..

(188) The word "doll" may have been evoked at a time when the child was handling the toy, `talking' to it, or even running to get it. The proprioceptive stimulations arising from these acts therefore become adequate conditioning stimuli for producing the response of speaking the word. . In all relations in which the doll itself was formerly experienced the word "doll" may now be called up in consciousness and evoked as an audible or a 'thought' response. At any future time therefore when the child may recall or have the tendency to manipulate such an object through habit, he will be likely to say "doll." The attendant again produces the object; and the arcs involved in this solution are fixated as before. The learner has now reached the advanced stage of demanding objects Verbs, adverbs, and particles, such as "give," "down," "again," "move," and "no," are acquired and used in the same fashion. Having been learned through social agents in connection with attitudes, postures, and situations, they are now used to control these agents with respect to the situations they represent.

languaging, and the Extended Mind Hypothesis 685 ..

(212) communication. Other creatures first understood, them through their association with the actions they accompanied, and reacted for their own good. Then, since they served in this way as means of conditioning the behavior of others, they finally became true language stimuli and were used for social control. It is likely that facial expressions have followed the same course of development. Beginning as complete reactions of the whole animal (attack, biting, etc.) they were shortened to those facial and bodily components alone which could serve as expressive signs for controlling others (facies of rage, etc.).[13]Where a more adequate language has evolved, as in man, they serve to emphasize and lend emotional color to the words themselves.

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