Start studying Unit 5- Notes and Problems
State Avogadro's Hypothesis
What evidence supports Avogadro's hypothesis?
We acknowledge that the empirical evidence could be interpreted in two ways. First, the animal model is simply not predictive of human response to drugs and disease. (For more on the failure of animal models of human to correlate with humans, see [, -, -].) Second, perhaps the proposed SRs and standardization will allow for correction of methodological problems that have resulted in animal models failing to be of predictive value. Perhaps the problem is confined to methodology. In light of this dichotomy, the following questions must be addressed: Is there an all-encompassing explanation for the failure of animal models to be of predictive value regardless of methodology? Is there a theory or law in science that explains the empirical evidence we presented? We propose that the fact that all animals are examples of constitutes a scientific theory explaining why animal models fail to be predictive modalities for human response to drugs and disease. In addition, this theory requires us to question whether an animal model will ever be a predictive modality for humans at the level of organization where disease and drug response occurs, regardless of methodological improvements.
Another confusing aspect of the Avogadro memoir was the use of the ambiguous term "molecule." Not only did this conflict with the vigorous Newtonian atomism of the English and French schools, but it implied a sequence of chemical reactions for which no decisive evidence was forthcoming. Dalton, for example, had postulated that water was formed by the simple addition of the element hydrogen to the element oxygen, or H + O → HO, whereas the correct process implicit in Avogadro's hypothesis was 2H2+ O2 (in the molecular form) → 2H2O.
Avogadro's Law - Avogadro's theory - Avogadro's hypothesis
Dalton, it is true, has proposed a hypothesis directly opposed to this, namely that the quantity of caloric is always the same for the molecules of all bodies whatsoever in the gaseous state, and that the greater or less attraction for caloric only results in producing a greater or less condensation of this quantity around the molecules, and thus varying the distance between the molecules themselves. But in our present ignorance of the manner in which this attraction of the molecules for caloric is exerted, there is nothing to decide us in favour of the one of these hypotheses rather than the other; and we should rather be inclined to adopt a neutral hypothesis, which would make the distance between the molecules and the quantities of caloric vary according to unknown laws, were it not that the hypothesis we have just proposed is based on that simplicity of relation between the volumes of gases on combination, which would appear to be otherwise inexplicable.Setting out from this hypothesis, it is apparent that we have the means of determining very easily the relative masses of the molecules of substances obtainable in the gaseous state, and the relative number of these molecules in compounds; for the ratios of the masses of the molecules are then the same as those of the densities of the different gases at equal temperature and pressure, and the relative number of molecules in a compound is given at once by the ratio of the volumes of the gases that form it. For example, since the numbers 1.10359 and 0.07321 express the densities of the two gases oxygen and hydrogen compared to that of atmospheric air as unity, and the ratio of the two numbers consequently represents the ratio between the masses of equal volumes of these two gases, it will also represent on our hypothesis the ratio of the masses of their molecules.
"The relative number of molecules [atoms] in a compound" is nothing more than the compound's formula, a list of the atoms in the compound and their relative numbers.Already Avogadro has begun to give some evidence for his hypothesis (previous paragraph) and to sketch out its implications.That is, the formula for water is H2O; compare to Dalton's assumed formula, HO.That is, the formula for ammonia is NH3; compare to Dalton's assumed formula, NH.
17/01/2018 · Avogadro's law: Avogadro’s law, a ..
All that is needed is about 30 minutes, some open space, some paper money, and a group of students who know how to play (or can be taught quickly) the game "rock–paper–scissors." The relationships among probability, energy distribution, microstates, equilibrium, fluctuation, chemical reaction, and entropy as a measure of the "dispersal" of energy are discussed in the context of this activity. This qualitative presentation by Frank Lambert will be useful to students and others having limited scientific backgrounds, and to teachers who are seeking ways to make the subject more meaningful.
Ideal gas equation of state …300, ..
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Avogadro's hypothesis was key to solving many problems facing the chemical sciences in the 1800s
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