Stephen Krashen and the Input Hypothesis
And who typically require specialized or modified instruction in both English language and in their academic courses.
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages
Once again, our library and literacy champion, Stephen Krashen, professor emeritus, University of Southern California, has supplied the research to support what I observe in these students. Dr. Krashen developed five hypotheses on language acquisition, summarized as the input hypothesis. Rather than focusing our efforts on direct language instruction, Dr. Krashen’s research revealed that comprehensible input, in the form of spoken or written language, results directly in language acquisition and competence. Krashen believes that most language learning is unconsciously acquired and also dependent on the interest level (compellingness) of the input, both aural and written. In fact, his case study of Ramon (see notes below) illustrates what I witness in my students every year.
Language is not soaked up. The learner must understand the message that is conveyed. is a hypothesis first proposed by Stephen Krashen. (Krashen, 1981) He purports that ELLs acquire language by hearing and understanding messages that are slightly above their current English language level. (Comprehensible Input +1)
See here an enlightening video by Krashen about comprehensible input
When I became a middle school librarian fourteen years ago, our graphic novel section was limited to a few Simpsons comics and Calvin and Hobbes. One of my goals has been to grow the collection, and the timing couldn’t have been better. After binging on purchasing many Japanese Manga series, I noticed that so many more talented writers were working in the genre: American Born Chinese by Gene Luen Yang and the Persepolis books by Marjane Satrapi to name but two notable additions. Now Jason Reynolds has added his latest: Miles Morales: Spider-Man, featuring a half-black/half Puerto Rican young Spider-Man. Although it’s not a graphic novel but a regular one, it serves as a perfect bridge for comic readers to try out more conventional text. Another recent purchase has gotten positive reviews: Rickety Stitch and the Gelatinous Goo: The Road to Epoli by Ben Costa. And of course the gorgeous, illustrated Snow White by Matt Phelan. I’m thankful to these graphic novel artists and writers who make language more accessible to our dormant readers and to our students who are English language learners.
These English language learners are an integral part of our library program. Their ELL teacher sends them to the library frequently, and they are avid readers of graphic novels. Graphic novels are perfect for English language learners because they are high interest, and the images can fill in, giving clues when they don’t know a word. Rather than stopping to look up the meanings of every few words, they can intuit meaning. It is commonly said that it takes about seven years to learn a new language. If that’s true, then our students are certainly quick learners. The most rapid advances I’ve witnessed in language acquisition are in my frequent readers of graphic novels. In fact, if only Raina Telgemeier (graphic novelist of Smile, Sisters, Ghosts) could write a novel a day, my students might become fluent in just weeks! Please take a moment to listen to these testimonials from my former students.
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Background to the study In our country, South Africa, we know that we are faced with so many socio-economic issues Some of these issues are poverty, high crime, HIV/AIDS epidemic, child-headed families, abuse in the family, illiterate parents and alcoholic parents just to name a few.
Eventually this technique was obtained as a teaching method since sometimes teachers may face a lack of materials which can be a loss of electricity source that could affect a lesson based on listening or at least affect photocopying materials for students....
Stephen Krashen - Books and Articles by Stephen D Krashen
Books and Articles by Stephen D Krashen
Stephen Krashen’s theory of second language acquisition -Input Hypothesis - Stephen Krashen’s theory of ..
Comprehensible Input and Output - everythingESL
Dr Stephen Krashen who is infamous for the controversial Comprehensible Input Hypothesis
The Natural Approach to language teaching - Learn …
Watch as Stephen Krashen gives two very different types of lessons to illustrate the theory of Comprehensible Input.
VIPKID Teach Online Blog | American Elementary School …
Even in Canada, an officially bilingual country, only 15% of Canadians speak English and one unofficial language (Statistics Canada 2008) and in America, only 21% of the population is versed in two languages (Logan, 2003)....
Order of acquisition - Wikipedia
Therefore, it comes as no surprise, that a limited number of second languages are taught in schools across the western world, and languages are sometimes failed to be passed on to children growing up in a different country than their parents did.
Key Concepts of Second-Language Acquisition - ASCD
The Input hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how thelearner acquires a second language – how second language acquisition takes place. The Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'.According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. For example, if a learner is at a stage 'i', then acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'. We can then define 'Comprehensible Input' as the target language that the learner would not be able to produce but can still understand. It goes beyond the choice of words and involves presentation of context, explanation, rewording of unclear parts, the use of visual cues and meaning negotiation. The meaning successfully conveyed constitutes the learning experience.
Key Concepts of Second-Language Acquisition
Lightbown (1984, p.246): a combination of 'a linguistic theory (through its "natural order" hypothesis), social psychological theory (through its "affective filter" hypothesis), psychological learning theory (through its acquisition-learning hypothesis), discourse analysis and sociolinguistic theory (through both the comprehensible input hypothesis and the "monitor" hypothesis)'.
Seven Teaching Strategies for Classroom Teachers of ELLs
The idea of beginners being exposed to easy, comprehensible input (easy stories) rather than forced early production is very interesting. Stephen Krashen makes a good case against grammar training by pointing out that students often cannot retain this knowledge. They are victims of grammar instruction, as teachers have fallen in love with the idea of generative grammar and are fascinated by it. He argues that students learn more by receiving comprehensible, interesting and compelling input. He is basically saying that adults can learn like children. The child tries to understand first, as grammar instruction on its own cannot lead to an understanding. This has a lot of ramifications for grammar training.
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