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L.: Priapism caused by 'Tribulus terrestris'.; Int J Impot Res 2016; 28: 39--40

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Steroidal saponin biosynthesis Saponin - Wikipedia

Steroidal saponins are natural surfactants with various biological activities, and the tubers of , known as yam, contain a furostanol glycoside protodioscin and a spirostanol glycoside dioscin, which are valuable saponins required for semi-synthetic production of pharmaceutical steroidal drugs. Steroidal saponins are biosynthesized from cholesterol via several steps of oxygenation and transglycosylation, and a β-glucosidase is involved in the hydrolytic conversion from furostanol glycosides to spirostanol glycosides. To investigate steroidal saponin biosynthesis in spps, comparative transcriptome analysis of high saponin producers, and , and a low producer, , was performed using 454 pyrosequencing. In this study, we isolated and characterized a β-glucosidase (DeF26G1) from . The cDNA encodes a family 1 glucosidase, and the transcript was present at high levels in but not detected in . The recombinant DeF26G1 protein hydrolyzed the 26--glycosidic bond of protodioscin to form dioscin, indicating that the gene encodes furostanol glycoside 26--β-glucosidase. These results suggested that DeF26G1 is involved in the conversion of furostanol saponins to spirostanol saponins, which seems to be related to biological defense response in the leaves of plants.

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K., Kadota S.: Hepatoprotective effect of majonoside R2, the major saponin from Vietnamese ginseng (Panax vietnamensis).; Planta Med 2002; 68: 402--406

Structural variety and biosynthesis

H.: Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus.; Iran J Med Sci 2016; 41: S5

c.: Proerectile pharmacological effects of Tribulus terrestris extract on the rabbit corpus cavernosum; Ann Acad Med Singapore 2000; 29: 22--26

M., Aoki T.: Assessment of the Effects of Tribulus Terrestris on Sexual Function of Menopausal Women.; Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2016; 38: 140--146

Použitá vědecká literatura | Adaptogeny

Combined transcriptome and expression analysis revealed that leaf and fruit tissues are the main site of steroidal saponin biosynthesis.

k.: Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn - in sexually sluggish male albino rats; J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2012; 3: 43--47

O., Destro-saade R., Luiza-reis A., Fregonesi A.: Tribulus terrestris versus placebo in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: A prospective, randomized, double blind study.; Actas Urol Esp 2014; 38: 244--248

pentacyclic triterpenoids, piroketal steroids Saponins are usually of two types, namely: first, the steroidal saponins which essentially have a spiroketal side chain, and secondaly, the triterpenoid saponins ..
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    The aglycone (glycoside-free) portions of the saponins are termed sapogenins

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CAPSICUM: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and …

- Nakayasu M., Kawasaki T., Lee H.J., Sugimoto Y., Onjo M., Muranaka T., Mizutani M. (2015)
Identification of furostanol glycoside 26-O-β-glucosidase involved in steroidal saponin biosynthesis from .
, 32, 299–308.

Biosynthesis of Saponin Glycosides - Epharmacognosy

- Kohara A., Nakajima C., Yoshida S., Muranaka T. (2007)
Characterization and engineering of glycosyltransferases responsible for steroid saponin biosynthesis in Solanaceous plants.
, 68, 478–486.

Saponin biosynthesis Publications and Abstracts | …

- Kohara A., Nakajima C., Hashimoto K., Ikenaga T., Tanaka H., Shoyama Y., Yoshida S., Muranaka T. (2005)
A novel glucosyltransferase involved in steroid saponin biosynthesis in .
, 57, 225–239.

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