THE SEROTONIN HYPOTHESIS OF MAJOR DEPRESSION
The specific difference in depression between women and men cannot be easily explained.
Figure 12 The network hypothesis of depression …
-Fenfluramine stimulates the serotonergic system more specifically than the racemic mixture; fenfluramine–induced prolactin secretion may be mediated via 5-HT receptors as well as 5-HT/5-HT receptors. Maes et al. (41) were unable to detect any significant differences in post–-fenfluramine (45 mg orally) prolactin responses between healthy controls and major depressed subjects. O'Keane and Dinan (60), on the other hand, found that plasma prolactin responses after -fenfluramine (30 mg orally) were significantly lower in major depressed patients than in control groups. In conclusion, there is some agreement that prolactin responses to , and -fenfluramine administration may be blunted in major depressed subjects compared to normal controls. These findings could be explained by a combination of decreased availability of 5-HT, increased inactivation or diminished 5-HT postsynaptic receptor sensitivity.
For example, in this scenario, levels of restricted emotionality would be comparable for men and women, and moreover would be comparably related to depression and anxiety; that is, restricted emotionality would be detrimental to the mental health of both men and women.
The Serotonin Hypothesis of Major Depression - ACNP
Two likely rationales will be given to support the hereditary theory and provide evidence that causes women to be more susceptible to depression.One possible genetic explanation is x-linkage; that is, the position of the relevant locus on the x chromosome.
Concentrations of 5-HIAA, the major 5-HT metabolite, in CSF have been extensively studied in depressed subjects, both in basal conditions and after blockade of its reabsorption by probenecid treatment (51). Meltzer and Lowy (51) concluded that it is very difficult to draw any valid conclusions on 5-HT turnover in depression on the basis of CSF 5-HIAA data. Several papers published after their 1987 review were also unable to find significant differences in CSF 5-HIAA between major depressed subjects and normal controls (63). In fact, there is more evidence that low CSF 5-HIAA levels are related to (violent) suicidal behavior and to violence-impulsivity rather than to depression per se (17).
The Serotonin Hypothesis of Major Depression
An example of this hypothesis would be: If a woman�s parent was depressed, she is more than likely to become depressed herself due to environment and genetic predisposition.
Having a family member present who is depressed, becomes a chronic environmental strain, which refers to ongoing "background" stressors that tax one�s coping abilities and resources.
hypothesis of major depression has been formulated in ..
Adolescent Stress and Depression
8. van Praag HM, de Koet ER, van Os J. Stress, the Brain and Depression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2004.
Hypothesis Journal » Rewiring the stress response: A …
Pubertal transition, stressful life events, and theemergence of gender differences in adolescent depressive symptoms.
Neurogenesis In Adult Brain: Association With Stress …
Development of gender differences in depression:An elaborated cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory.
Anxiety/aggression-driven depression - Wikipedia
As illustrated in Figure 1, as arousal and stress increase, dominance shifts to more primitive areas of the brain. The limbic and reptilian brains have limited functions fo-cused primarily on survival. The stress-brain area dominance relationship impacts all domains of life, as the organization of the brain to facilitate survival draws upon all systems (40). Which brain area is dominant does not determine the precise symptom but rather the extent of deviation from homeostatic states associated with health and well-being. For example, an individual in brain state 4 may have one of various symptoms of emotional stress such as hostility, mania, depression or anxiety.
Why Women Are More Susceptible to Depression
This occurs because women have a higher tendency of awareness of their surroundings and are typically closely interconnected with their family members. It is evident that phenotypic traits influence the rate of depression.
Stress | definition of stress by Medical dictionary
Some, but not all, groups described a reduction in imipramine binding in the frontal cortex of suicides (20). The latter group also found an increase in imipramine binding sites in the hippocampus of suicide victims. No significant differences in paroxetine binding sites of several brain areas could be detected between normal controls and suicide victims in whom a diagnosis of depression was made (30). Leake et al. (32) found lower [H]citalopram binding in the brains from depressed subjects.
Environmental Causes of Depression - All About Depression
"Such a specific difference cannot be explained easily as a result of biology, particularly among women because rates of depression did not vary by parity" (Nazroo & Edwards, 1998). Hereditarily speaking genetic transmission may cause women to be more susceptible to depression.
Environmental Causes of Depression
Three studies of 5-HT binding in the blood platelets of depressed patients and normal controls, found increased 5-HT binding () in the former, but one study did not (2). Increased 5-HT binding () in depressed patients is also supported by the increased 5-HT receptor functional response as measured by phosphoinositide turnover and 5-HT–induced platelet aggregation (55). Mikuni et al. (55) reported that the effects of 5-HT to increase intracellular calcium in platelets was greater in depressed patients than in controls, which is consistent with the hypothesis of 5-HT receptor up-regulation in depression.
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