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Martin Luther and the 95 Theses - Facts & Summary - …
The effects of Luther's 95 Thesis? | Yahoo Answers
149. The term presbyteros is used in Pastoral Epistles in two senses: (1) as an adjective denoting dignity of age, "older" (1 Tim. 5:1, "older man"; 5:2, "older woman");237 and (2) as a substantive, a title for a Christian community official, "presbyter" (Titus 1:5; 1 Tim. 5:17, 19). In Titus 1:5-9, the author lists many of the same qualifications, required for the episkopos in 1 Tim. 3:1-7, as requirements for the presbyteroi, and Titus 1:5-9, which begins with qualifications of "presbyters," suddenly shifts in v. 7 to episkopos, "an overseer," where the qualifications are ten positive and seven negative. The most important differences from 1 Timothy is that the episkopos is now called theou oikonomos, "God's steward" (1:7) and an exhorter with sound doctrine (1:9). Moreover, in 1 Timothy 5:17, the author speaks of "presbyters who preside well" and "those who labor in preaching and teaching," which may denote two different kinds of presbyters.238
17. Among Catholics, communion was used to speak in a non-juridical way of "a network of sacramentally focused local churches bound together ultimately by the mutual openness of their eucharistic celebrations," with the bishop of Rome "as the focal point of the network of churches linked together in the catholic, or universal, communio."21 Communion as "the permanent form of the unity of the church" was articulated on the eve of the Second Vatican Council.22 J.-M. R. Tillard explored communion ecclesiology as conforming "best to the biblical notion and to the intuitions of the great ecclesiological traditions."23 The 1985 Synod of Bishops recognized communion ecclesiology as "the central and fundamental idea" of the documents of Vatican II.24 The concept of communion came to be applied in a wide range of contexts. The 1992 statement from the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, "Some Aspects of the Church as Communion," explained that "ecclesial communion is at the same time visible and invisible" and this link "makes the church 'sacrament of salvation.'"25 The 1993 Directory for Ecumenism stressed the presence and activity of the universal church in the particular churches.26 John Paul II said in 1995 that the "elements of sanctification and truth" shared by "the other Christian communities" show that "the one Church of Christ is effectively present in them." This is the reason for the communion that persists between the Catholic Church and "the other Churches and Ecclesial Communities," in spite of their divisions.27
What was the effect of martin Luther's 95 theses
18. For Lutherans, the term koinonia was used in German discussions in the 1950s on Protestant church fellowship.28 In the latter part of the twentieth century the Lutheran World Federation increasingly employed koinonia/communio themes.29 In 1990 it defined itself as "a communion of churches which confess the triune God, agree in the proclamation of the Word of God and are united in pulpit and altar fellowship."30 Lutherans and Catholics in dialogue have related koinonia to the doctrine of the Trinity and ecclesiology.31
22. On the other hand, Lutherans and Catholics differ over what "local church" designates. For Lutherans the local church is the congregation; for Catholics it is most often the diocese.34 This difference is closely related to a parallel set of differences over the status of the ordained ministers who minister to these two communities: the minister of the congregation or parish (the pastor, priest, or presbyter) and the minister of the regional grouping of these communities (the bishop). This difference is rooted in the complex history of the development of local and regional church bodies (§§159-195).
The Impact of Luther's 95 Theses
245. Today, Catholic and Lutheran funerals alike emphasize a confident hope in the grace of God that gathers together the justified into the perfect communion that exists beyond death. Worship books of both traditions now call for funerals within the context of the Eucharist, celebrating our continued fellowship with the dead within the body of Christ. Catholic and many Lutheran funeral liturgies contain a prayerful commendation of the dead into the hands of a merciful and gracious God.
Please go online to find a copy and read Martin Luther’s 95 Theses. Which arguments do you think would be most offensive/upsetting to the Pope? Pick 5 of the arguments and explain what Luther was arguing against/about, and why the argument would have troubled the Catholic church/pope of the 16th century
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448"Ordained Minister" §58 = repr. 44-45, stressing Loehe's distrust of democracy and support for episcopacy as found in Scripture, i.e., identical with the presbytery; Pragman 132-36. See Loehe's Three Books About the Church (1845; trans. 1908; Philadelphia: Fortess, 1969); Aphorismen über die neutestamentichen Ämter: Zur Verfassungsfrage der Kirche (1849), rev. ed. Kirche und Amt: Neue Aphorismen (1851); S. Hebert, Wilhelm Löhes Lehre von der Kirche, ihrem Amt und Regiment: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Theologie im 19. Jahrhundert (Neuendettelsau; Friemund-Verlag, 1939); J. L. Schaaf, "Loehe's Relation to the American Church," diss. Heidelberg 1962.
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447"Ordained Minister," §45 = repr. p. 39-40; Pragman 136-37. K. Scholder, RGG 3rd ed, 6 (1962) 1401-1403, notes Vilmar's stance against a Kurhessen-Waldeck "Summepiskopat" that introduced the Church of the Prussian Union in some regions and his stand for separation of church and state. Such views led to the "Renitent" or resistence movement in 1873, some of whose members emigrated to America. Vilmar regarded statements in the "Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope" (69-70, 72) about congregations in emergencies electing and ordaining ministers as "superfluous remarks" for an "inconceivable" situation, the absence of all pastors called by pastors (Schlink, Theology of the Lutheran Confessions, [above, n. 442] 244 note 12). At Treatise 72 the Kolb and Wengert ed. has not added the phrase to which A. C. Piepkorn called attention in Eucharist and Ministry, 110-11, note 14, adhibitis suis pastoribus, "the church retains the right to choose and ordain ministers using their own pastors."
Why so many Protestants do not consider Catholics Christian
438The Journals of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg In Three Volumes, trans. T. G. Tappert and J. W. Doberstein (Philadelphia: the Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania and Adjacent States and Muhlenberg Press, 1942, 1945, 1958), 1:7. Harvey L. Nelson, "A Critical Study of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg's Means of Maintaining his Lutheranism," dissertation, Drew University, Madison, NJ, 1980: 373-74, observes how German settlers, "despite the voluntaristic, pluralistic, congregationally oriented religious climate of the Middle Colonies … clung to their German views of the pastor and his office."
But Hans Luther had other plans for young Martin—he wanted him to …
382Secunda controversia I 14 (Opera omnia II 167-69). Chief among the bishops' special powers of order is the power to ordain; among the Fathers, Bellarmine cites Jerome in his Letter to Evangelus ("What does a bishop do beyond what a presbyter does, except ordain?") not only in this section on order but on 170 against Chemnitz, 171 against the Franciscan Miguel de Medina, and in his book De Sacramento Ordinis I 11 (Opera omnia III 773).
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