because the copper ammine complex is …
The precursor complex, tetra(ammine)copper ..
This is because tetrammine copper(II) complex is more ..
Hueso-Urena F, Moreno-Carretero MN, Salas-Peregrín JM, & Alvarez de Cienfuegos-López G (1991) Palladium, platinum, cadmium, and mercury complexes with neutral isoorotic and 2-thioisoorotic acids: IR and NMR spectroscopies, thermal behavior and biological properties. J Inorg Biochem, 43: 17-27.
An ambient air study was conducted in the city of Chernivtsi (Ukraine) from 26 October to 2 November 1990 to measure total particulate matter and the elemental composition, including palladium (Scheff et al., 1997). The results were compared with studies in Chicago, Illinois (USA). The average total particulate matter concentration (144 µg/m3) and palladium concentration (56.6 ng/m3) measured in Chernivtsi exceeded the values reported in Chicago (PM10: 30.3 µg/m3; palladium: 12.7 ng/m3). The reported palladium concentrations are in the same order of magnitude as typical values for transitional elements like manganese, zinc or copper and were allocated to "other anthropogenic activity," because soil and automobile contributions were assumed to be negligible.
Investigation of Copper(II) amino acid complexes
Downey (1992) reported a case of acute intermittent porphyria after placement of dental prostheses composed of 76% palladium, 2% gold and 10% copper (probably by weight). The symptoms observed in a 45-year-old woman (skin rashes, diarrhoea, metallic taste, short-term memory loss, swelling of feet and arms, signs of chronic fatigue syndrome and others) disappeared following removal of the restorations. Despite the high palladium content, it was concluded that copper was the inducing agent, because copper is known to induce porphyria. The possible role of palladium was not discussed.
Palladium-containing alloys tested varied in their cytotoxicity, depending mainly on microstructure and composition of the samples (Kawahara et al., 1968; Kawata et al., 1981; Niemi & Hensten-Pettersen, 1985; Ito et al., 1995; Warocquier-Clerout et al., 1995). Severe effects seem to be triggered by other components (e.g., copper). Exposure of a high-noble alloy (Au58, Ag25, Pd13, Zn4; weight per cent) to human fibroblast-keratinocyte co-cultures resulted in a 87-90% reduction of cell viability (MTT assay), but there was no change in prostaglandin E2 or interleukin-6 levels (Schmalz et al., 1997b, 1998). Differences from controls in fibronectin arrangement and cell proliferation were observed with an alloy containing 78% palladium (Au2, Pt1, Pd78, Ag6, Sn2.5, In1.5, Ga9) in a human fibroblast culture (Grill et al., 1997).
Investigation of Copper(II) amino acid complexes ..
Palladium has major importance in dentistry in both cast and direct fillings. Palladium is a component of some dental amalgams. Dental casting gold alloys containing PGMs have been considered the standard material for all types of cast restorations. Palladium alloys (gold-silver-copper-PGM) can be matched to any dental application (inlays, full-cast crowns, long-span bridges, ceramic metal systems and removable partial dentures) by small variations of the alloy composition (Stümke, 1992). For example, there are more than 90 existing palladium alloys, with more than 50% in Germany for fixed restorations with ceramic veneer (Zinke, 1992; Daunderer, 1993). However, in Germany, dentists have recently been advised not to use palladium-copper alloys unless the alloys have been previously tested for corrosion resistance and biocompatibility (Zinke, 1992; BGA, 1993).
The solution chemistry of palladium in seawater has been examined by UV absorbance spectroscopy (Kump & Byrne, 1989).The results indicate that chloride complexation strongly suppresses the hydrolysis of Pd2+ in seawater. At 25 °C and 36% salinity, hydroxy complexes account for approximately 18% of the total palladium, and the remainder is present principally as PdCl42-.
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Six different pulverized palladium-containing dental alloys have been tested for their subacute toxicity in rats (Wistar, = 10, 5 females, 5 males). Compared with controls, all specimens caused significant histopathological changes in lung, liver, kidney, small intestine and colon following daily oral doses of 1000 mg/kg body weight for 7 days (and sacrifice after 7 additional days). The strongest effects were seen with compositions containing copper and/or indium: Pd73, Cu14, In5; Pd74, Sn16, Cu9; and Au51, Pd39, In4-9. The weakest effects were observed for the Pd58, Ag30, Sn6 alloy, and the changes due to the Pd80, Sn7, Ga6-8 and Au77, Pt10, Pd9 alloys fell in between (Fuhrmann, 1992; Reuling, 1992; Reuling et al., 1992).
A Level REDOX 3. Oxidation Reduction Organic …
In 1974, the palladium concentrations in the tap water in an urban, palladium-unpolluted area in California (USA), as well as in the tap water in the Sudbury mining (nickel, copper, platinum and palladium) complex (Canada), were reported to be below the detection limit (0.024 µg/litre) (Johnson et al., 1976). Tap water in one city in the People’s Republic of China contained 0.3 µg palladium/litre (Zhou & Liu, 1997). Detailed information on this single value is not available.
29/12/2015 · "Ammine" is spelled this way ..
From Table 8, it can be seen that demand for palladium, in particular for use in automobile catalysts, is increasing.Table 8. Western world palladium metal demand according to applicationPalladium metal or silver-palladium powder pastes are important products in the production of many electronic components. The metallization process is often carried out with silver-palladium thick film paste. The pastes are used in active components such as diodes, transistors, integrated circuits, hybrid circuits and semiconductor memories. They are also needed for passive electronic components, such as very small multilayer ceramic capacitors, thick film resistors or conductors.Silver-palladium alloys are used for electrical contacts, and other palladium alloys are used for electrical relays and switching systems in telecommunication equipment. In low-current technology, electrical contacts of palladium and its alloys are used. Large numbers of so-called reed contacts (silver-palladium-, rhodium- or ruthenium-coated contacts) have been used in telephone relays. Palladium can sometimes replace gold in coatings for electronics, electrical connectors and lead frames of semiconductors (Kroschwitz, 1996). The plating solutions contain palladium(II) diamminedinitrite [Pd(NH3)2(NO2)2], the tetraammine complex or palladium(II) chloride (Smith et al., 1978; Renner, 1992; Kroschwitz, 1996).Palladium has major importance in dentistry in both cast and direct fillings. Palladium is a component of some dental amalgams. Dental casting gold alloys containing PGMs have been considered the standard material for all types of cast restorations. Palladium alloys (gold-silver-copper-PGM) can be matched to any dental application (inlays, full-cast crowns, long-span bridges, ceramic metal systems and removable partial dentures) by small variations of the alloy composition (Stümke, 1992). For example, there are more than 90 existing palladium alloys, with more than 50% in Germany for fixed restorations with ceramic veneer (Zinke, 1992; Daunderer, 1993). However, in Germany, dentists have recently been advised not to use palladium-copper alloys unless the alloys have been previously tested for corrosion resistance and biocompatibility (Zinke, 1992; BGA, 1993).Recently, 103Pd has been used for cancer (e.g., prostrate) brachytherapy, a form of cancer radiation therapy in which radioactive sources are implanted directly into a malignant tumour (Sharkey et al., 1998; Finger et al., 1999).For more than 20 years, automobile exhaust catalysts have been used to reduce levels of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts. In the last few years, catalysts employing precious metal combinations of platinum or palladium and rhodium in a ratio of 5 to 1 (1.4-1.8 g PGM/litre catalyst volume) have been developed successfully (Abthoff et al., 1994; Degussa, 1995; Kroschwitz, 1996). Exhaust gas purification by equipping of passenger car diesel engines with palladium oxidation catalysts has been achieved only since about 1989 (Fabri et al., 1990), but more recent information shows that palladium is not used on diesel vehicles, which account for around 23% of the European market (Cowley, 1997). Concentrations of the precious metals vary and depend upon the specifications of the manufacturer (IPCS, 1991). Much of this information is proprietary.Worldwide demand for palladium in automobile catalysts rose from 23.5 tonnes in 1993 tonnes to 76.4 tonnes in 1996 (see Table 8). Around 60% of European gasoline cars sold in 1997 were equipped with palladium-based catalysts. North American car makers continued to use platinum-rich underbody catalysts, but there was increasing use of palladium starter catalysts to meet the hydrocarbon limits imposed by low-emission vehicle legislation. Many Japanese cars are equipped with palladium systems, whereas platinum-rich technology remains dominant elsewhere in Asia (Cowley, 1997).Palladium has a strong catalytic activity for hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, oxidation and hydrogenolysis reactions. Industrial palladium catalysts are in the form of finely divided powder, wire or gauze or supported on substrates such as activated carbon, gamma-aluminium oxide or aluminium silicates. Often, two or more PGMs are combined (Table 9). In the petroleum industry, PGM catalysts are used to produce gasolines with high antiknock properties. Palladium(II) chloride and tetrachloropalladic(II) acid are important homogeneous catalysts used in the large-scale oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde in the Wacker process. Palladium catalysts are also used for the acetoxylation of ethylene to vinyl acetate (Fishbein, 1976) and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid and methanol (Smith et al., 1978; Kroschwitz, 1996).Table 9. Examples of the catalytic activity of palladium Adapted from Renner (1992).
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