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Synthesis, crystal structure and complexation behaviour …


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Synthesis and 1H NMR Complexation Study of Thiacalix…

In this review, different types of QD/drug nanoparticle formulations are described for their potential use in targeted delivery and therapy. Using the rich surface functionalization chemistry of QDs, targeting biomolecules and drug formulation can be integrated with QDs for traceable drug delivery and therapy and . Many studies have demonstrated that the incorporation of drug formulations with QDs did not compromise the drug efficacy. More importantly, the QD/drug nanoparticle formulations were able to serve as an excellent platform for development of a new generation of traceable drug delivery strategies for real time monitoring of the drug biodistribution and . Because of toxicity concerns, cadmium-based QDs might not be the best candidate for drug delivery and therapy. Thus, many research groups are currently synthesizing cadmium-free QDs for applications. For example, our group has demonstrated the synthesis of indium phosphide, silicon, and copper indium sulfide QDs for targeted tumor imaging and very low toxicity was observed from these formulations[-, ]. However, for -based drug studies, cadmium-based QDs will remain to be utilized, since toxicity is not a concern. Another potential concern for the use of QDs in delivery and therapy is the overall QD size. In general, it is preferable to minimize the overall size of QDs for applications to reduce their accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system. Recently, methods have been reported to reduce the size of the QDs by tailoring their surface coating. Finally, passivation of the QD surface with a long-lasting and robust polymer coating is essential to prevent the breakdown of QDs in the biological environment that gives rise to their toxicity. This is a definite concern for applications. Some reports have suggested that capping the QD core with a higher bandgap semiconductor or biomolecule can minimize the toxicity. But, it is worth noting that each additional step towards functionalizing the QDs will contribute to their final hydrodynamic size and could directly or indirectly affect their biodistribution. In the near future, we envision that the QD/drug nanoparticle formulations will gain wide interest in many healthcare-related research areas. For example, the developed formulations can be used for early cancer detection and therapy. Also, the formulations can be systematically tailored for personalized drug treatment. More importantly, additional modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography contrast agents can be integrated into the QD/drug formulations, thus allowing one to use two or more imaging modalities to verify the biodistribution and efficacy of the drug . We believe that in the next few years there will be a tremendous growth in developing QD/drug nanoparticle formulations for therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

Synthesis and 1H NMR Complexation Study of Thiacalix[4] ..

Biosynthesis of RNA; Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis: Genetic code, Components of protein synthesis and Inhibition of protein synthesis.
Basic Principles of Medicinal Chemistry: Physico-chemical and stereoisomeric (Optical, geometrical) aspects of drug molecules and biological action, Bioisosterism, Drug-receptor interactions including transduction mechanisms; Drug metabolism and Concept of Prodrugs; Principles of Drug Design (Theoretical Aspects): Traditional analog and mechanism based approaches, QSAR approaches, Applications of quantum mechanics, Computer Aided Drug Designing (CADD) and molecular modeling; Synthetic Procedures, Mode of Action, Uses, Structure Activity Relationships including Physicochemical Properties of the Following Classes of Drugs: Drugs acting at synaptic and neuro-effector junction sites: Cholinergics, anti-cholinergics and cholinesterase inhibitors, Adrenergic drugs, Antispasmodic and anti-ulcer drugs, Local Anesthetics, Neuromuscular blocking agents; Autacoids: Antihistamines, Eicosanoids, Analgesic-antipyretics, Anti-inflammatory (non-steroidal) agents.

Synthesis, electrochemical and complexation studies of …

complexes, liquid crystals, glassy state, solids- crystalline, amorphous and polymorphism.
Micromeretics and Powder Rheology:
Particle size and distribution, average particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle volume, methods of determining particle size- optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation; measurements of particle shape, specific surface area; methods for determining surface area; permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon:
Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interface.
Viscosity and Rheology:
Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature; non-Newtonian systems: pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic; thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, negative thixotropy, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometers.
Dispersion Systems:
Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in pharmacy; Suspensions and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian motion, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations; Emulsions-types, theories, physical stability.
Classification of complexes, methods of preparation and analysis, applications.
Kinetics and Drug Stability:
General considerations & concepts, half-life determination, Influence of temperature, light, solvent, catalytic species and other factors, Accelerated stability study, expiration dating.
Importance of microbiology in pharmacy; Structure of bacterial cell; Classification of microbes and their taxonomy:
Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses;
Identification of Microbes:
Stains and types of staining techniques, electron microscopy; Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc; Microbial genetics and variation;
Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods:
Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation;
different methods, validation of sterilization methods & equipments; Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products.

The first example of the successful synthesis of hybrid nanoparticles using multifunctional silica initiators in a miniemulsion ATRP was disclosed a decade ago. The reaction was driven to higher conversion in a shorter time. (27) This success with miniemulsion relies on the compartmentalization of the reaction media which segregates the reaction medium and therefore minimizes the effect of radical termination and macroscopic gelation. (28) Since termination reactions should be limited to individual droplets the proportion of terminated chains should be relatively small and the degree of crosslinking is less than in bulk conditions. The confinement effect increases the deactivation rate and termination rate so control is better but reaction rate is also decreased.

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