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74260; Brilliant Green Phthalocyanine;

Invention describes a method for synthesis of copper tetra-(3,6-dichloro-4,5-diphenoxy)phthalocyanine.

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a) azo dyesb) anthraquinone dyesc) phthalocyanines

Sindhu Seelan; A.K Sinha; D Srinivas; S Sivasanker. Spectroscopic investigation and catalytic activity of copper(II) phthalocyanine encapsulated in zeolite Y. J. Mol. Catal. 2000, 157 (1-2), 163-171.

Phthalocyanine pigments are used in enamels, linoleum, inks, plastics, and rubber goods.

Phthalocyanines coordinate with metal atoms. The most important, contributing about 2% of all colorants, are the copper phthalocyanines, used for their brilliant blue and green colours. An example is C.I. Direct Blue 86:

Visible absorption spectrum of copper phthalocyanine.

Phthalocyanines are essentially made up of four molecules of isoindole:

Earlier in the unit, the structure of a dye, C.I. Direct Blue 86, was displayed and it can be seen how the sulfonic acid groups in that structure transform a pigment into a dye.

. A small group of chloranil derived colorants including one very important pigment, dioxazine violet ( and ), developed in 1952 by Hoechst AG as a dye, and now used in plastics and automotive finishes to warm the color of phthalo blue. The pigment is obtained by dissolving the dye in a very hot acid, then washing and salt grinding the precipitate that results. The pigment exists in two crystal modifications, a red and a blue shade, whose hue can be modified by different methods of manufacture or grinding: both have the same color index name, are poorly distinguished by manufacturers, and are apparently confused in the lightfastness testing literature (see the comments under in the ). Watercolor manufacturers consistently offer the blue shade, which is described "extremely lightfast" in the authoritative industry documentation but "fugitive" in many watercolor testing references. (I found "very good" to "excellent" lightfastness in my own watercolor tests.)

Here is the spectrum of cu-phthalocyanine.2H2O

An example is C.I. Pigment Blue 15:

More suitable than its rivals for creating opaque yellows, it was used as an alternative to Orpiment.
White Lead
See Lead White (above).
An ancient pigment obtained from the woad or dyerswoad herb of the mustard family, grown for its blue/indigo dye and pigment.

The authoritative source on synthetic organic pigments is Industrial organic pigments by Willy Herbst and Klaus Hunger (Wiley, 1997), billed as "everything there is to know about organic pigments." A summary of the same information (by the same authors) is available in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (Wiley, 2000), available at any good chemistry library. (Phthalocyanine pigments are treated in a separate chapter; Ullmann's also has a chapter on "Artists' Colors.") Historical pigment information for natural organic pigments is scattered across several sources. An excellent starting point is the four volume Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics edited by Robert Feller (v.1), Roy Ashok (v.2), Elisabeth West Fitzhugh (v.3) and Barbara Berrie (v.4) (Oxford University Press, 1994-2001). You may also want to check out this interesting web site on .

This is the Standard Color for ultramarine blue opaque, 12RCW#7, [MMCC], an ancient pigment.
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  • Phthalocyanine : definition of Phthalocyanine and …

    Copper phthalocyanine

  • Phthalocyanine is an intensely blue-green coloured aromatic ..

    These molecules are connected to each other in a phthalocyanine by nitrogen atoms. The structure of phthalocyanine is:

  • copper phthalocyanine was also ..

    These molecules are connected to each other in a phthalocyanine by nitrogen atoms. The structure of phthalocyanine is:

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Polychloro copper phthalocyanine - Brief Profile - ECHA

The favourite white pigment of Ancient Egypt, Gypsum is a natural mineral Calcium Sulfate which performs well in water based mediums but not in oils.
Han Blue, Han Purple
Also known as Chinese purple and Chinese blue, these synthetic barium copper silicate pigments were formulated in China around 250 BCE, and used extensively by Chinese artists from the Western Zhou period (1207-771 BCE) until the end of the Han dynasty (c.220 CE).

Polychloro copper phthalocyanine; ..

Reactive dyes are of outstanding importance for the dyeing of cotton, enabling bright intense coloration with high fastness. Approximately 95% of reactive dyes are azo dyes covering all the range of colours. Blues and greens are also provided by anthraquinone and phthalocyanine structures.
As the name of these dyes suggests, they react with the fibre, whether cellulosic (cotton) or protein (wool) to form covalent bonds (Table 4). The two stages, first dyeing, then reaction, can take place separately or simultaneously. The characteristic structural feature is the presence of one or more reactive groups. Typically the dyes are depicted as

PIGMERON BETA BLUE BFL; Polychloro copper phthalocyanine;

Buy a small tube of a specific synthetic inorganic pigment from several manufacturers, to learn the variations in quality across different brands. Use a to determine the quantity of pigment in the paint. Cobalt blue, cadmium red, ultramarine blue and viridian are excellent selections to find out whether a manufacturer is really committed to making a high quality product.

Copper phthalocyanine - Revolvy

Modern Hooker's Green is typically a blend of Phthalo Blue and Cadmium Yellow.
Indian Yellow
This clean, deep and luminescent yellow pigment (also called Puree, Peoli, or Gaugoli), was introduced to India from Persia during the 15th century.

Iron Phthalocyanine | AMERICAN ELEMENTS

The structure of alpha phthalocyanine blue (PB15:3) is representative: four carbon rings linked into a flat plate by carbon and nitrogen; the metal atom (in this case, copper) bonds to two of the four inner nitrogen atoms. The green shades, which are chemically less stable, form by replacing 15 of the hydrogen atoms on the outer carbon rings with chlorine (PG7) or chlorine and bromine (PG36) atoms. The individual dye plates can form chains or polymers by linking the copper atoms to each other through intermediate oxygen atoms; these form the pigment particles. Phthalo blues and greens have been available in artists' paints since the 1950's, but have only recently gained wide use among watercolorists. (The strongly staining character of these early phthalo blue paints was discouraging.) The colors used in artists' paints range in hue from a reddish blue ( or ) to greenish blue (), cyan (), turquoise (), bluish green (), and yellowish green (PG13, ); only the metal free form (PB16, a dull greenish blue) is a true synthetic organic pigment. All shades (but especially the greens) increase in chroma and tinting strength as average goes below 0.15µm, which is achieved by finishing with acids or mechanical grinding. Phthalocyanines are indispensable pigments in the green part of the color circle: PG7 or PG36 are base ingredients for a wide range of mixtures. The natural scarcity of blue and green pigments is illustrated by the fact that phthalo blue is the most important blue pigment discovered since cobalt blue (1804) or ultramarine blue (1828); phthalo green is the most important green pigment since emerald green (1814) or viridian (1838).

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