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Discovery And Synthesis Of LSD: What You ..

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, ..

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LSD synthesis | Lysergic Acid Diethylamide | Filtration

The research chemical market is based on the philosophy of tweaking existing recreational molecular backbones, yet compounds based on LSD appear to be few and far between. There is nothing at all preventing the existence of exotic research chemicals based on the ergoloid backbone, and in fact several are known that have significant recreational potential based on academic studies. The interesting fact is that none of them appear to have hit the market in significant volume. Perhaps this is simply the result of watched precursors and more elaborate synthesis routes than established products, but experimentation by the research chemical market seems rather lackluster based on the reputation of the parent drug and possible potential.

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Synonyms include N,N-diethyl-lysergamide, lysergic acid diethylamide, LSD, and LSD-25. There are many street names including acid, blotter, dots, tabs, tickets, trips and many others related to the particular designs on the paper dosage forms.

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Besides LSD, which is more precisely designated as D-lysergic acid diethylamide,I have also produced and likewise tested in self-experiments thethree other spatially different forms, namely D-isolysergic aciddiethylamide (iso-LSD), L-lysergic acid diethylamide (L-LSD),and L-isolysergic acid diethylamide (L-iso-LSD).

The mechanism by which LSD causes such profound affects on the human perception still hasn't been established. What is known, is that as well as the uterine-constricting activity mentioned earlier, LSD stimulates centers of the sympathetic nervous system in the midbrain, which leads to pupillary dilation, increase in body temperature, and rise in the blood-sugar level. LSD also has a -blocking effect. is a hormone-like substance, occurring naturally in various organs of warm-blooded animals. Concentrated in the midbrain, it plays an important role in the propagation of impulses in certain nerves and therefore in the biochemistry of psychic functions. LSD also influences neurophysiological functions that are connected with , which is another naturally occurring hormone-like substance. Most of the brain centres receptive to dopamine become activated by LSD, while the others are depressed. The structure of LSD is very similar to other hallucinogenic drugs such as and , all of which contain a substituted (or a related structure).

Synthesis of Alprazolam, LSD, PCP and Other Illegal …

The first magic plant to be studied scientifically was peyotl, also named peyote; this was under investigation as early as at the turn of the century. The history of peyotl, its ancient cultic use by the Indians of Central America and its present use, as well as the psychic effects on human beings, were first described by Louis Lewin, the brilliant pharmacologist and toxicologist, in his classic monograph entitled
Lewin established the basis for psychotomimetic research by this standard publication in which the psychotomimetics or hallucinogens, named by him were characterized and grouped for the first time in an independent group within the psychopharmaceutical drugs. The peyotl cactus was named by the botanist Hennings in honor of Lewin. Louis Lewin and Arthur Heffter, who isolated the alkaloid mescaline in 1896 from the cactus, deserve a place of honor in the history of psychopharmacological psychotomimetic research. In 1919, Ernst Späth in Vienna succeeded in elucidating the chemical structure of mescaline and in synthesizing this alkaloid.
Mescaline made it possible for the first time to investigate the phenomenon of hallucinogenic effects from a scientific, pharmacological, and clinical aspect using a pure chemical compound. The results of this first period of psychopharmacological investigations in the nineteen twenties were published in the classical monograph by K. Beringer. However, in the years to follow, interest in hallucinogenic research faded. Not until the nineteen forties with the discovery of LSD did this line of research receive a new impetus leading to an upsurge of interest that has lasted until the present time.
Our preoccupation with LSD was the reason why the second magic drug of Mexico, teonanacatl, which means "sacred mushroom," was submitted to our laboratory for a chemical analysis. The use and worship of teonanacatl by the Indians of Central America must be very ancient. In Guatemala, "mushroom stones" have been found the oldest specimens of which are over three thousand years old.

Lysergide (LSD) is a semi-synthetic , and is one of the most potent drugs known. Recreational use became popular between the 1960s to 1980s, but is now less common. It is generally believed that most LSD is produced outside Europe, but secondary preparation of dosage units by dipping or spotting paper squares is more widespread. These dosage units usually bear coloured designs featuring cartoon characters, geometric and abstract motifs. LSD is related to other substituted , and is under international control.

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instructions in the synthesis of LSD #4.

By the time the doctor arrived, the peak of the crisis had already passed. As far as I remember, the following were the most outstanding symptoms: vertigo, visual disturbances; the faces of those around me appeared as grotesque, colored masks; marked motoric unrest, alternating with paralysis; an intermittent heavy feeling in the head, limbs and the entire body, as if they were filled with lead; dry, constricted sensation in the throat; feeling of choking; clear recognition of my condition, in which state I sometimes observed, in the manner of an independent, neutral observer, that I shouted half insanely or babbled incoherent words. Occasionally I felt as if I were out of my body.
The doctor found a rather weak pulse but an otherwise normal circulation.... Six hours after ingestion of the LSD my condition had already improved considerably. Only the visual disturbances were still pronounced. Everything seemed to sway and the proportions were distorted like the reflections in the surface of moving water. Moreover, all objects appeared in unpleasant, constantly changing colors, the predominant shades being sickly green and blue. When I closed my eyes, an unending series of colorful, very realistic and fantastic images surged in upon me. A remarkable feature was the manner in which all acoustic perceptions (e.g., the noise of a passing car) were transformed into optical effects, every sound evoking a corresponding colored hallucination constantly changing in shape and color like pictures in a kaleidoscope. At about one o'clock I fell asleep and awoke next morning feeling perfectly well.

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The International Non-proprietary Name (INN) is (+)- lysergide. The abbreviation LSD is derived from its German name LysergSäureDiethylamid (Lysergic acid diethylamide) (-50-37-3). Lysergide belongs to a family of indole alkylamines that includes numerous substituted such as psilocin (found in ‘magic’ mushrooms) and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The name for LSD is 9,10-didehydro-N,N-diethyl-6-methylergoline-8β-carboxamide. The (R) is more potent than the (S) form.

LSD is, without a doubt, the king of hallucinogens

LSD was first synthesised by Albert Hoffman while working for Sandoz Laboratories in Basel in 1938. Some years later, during a re-evaluation of the compound, he accidentally ingested a small amount and described the first ‘trip’. During the 1950s and 1960s, Sandoz evaluated the drug for therapeutic purposes and marketed it under the name Delysid®. It was used for research into the chemical origins of mental illness. Recreational use started in the 1960s and is associated with the ‘psychedelic period’.

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