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Synthesis of Apolipoprotein A-I in the Skeletal Muscle …

Synthesis and Regulation of Apolipoprotein E during …

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Extrahepatic synthesis of apolipoprotein E — Case …

AB - The synthesis and endoneurial distribution of apolipoproteins in response to myelin degradation was elucidated morphologically and biochemically in rodent models of segmental demyelination. At the onset of acute demyelination induced by tellurium (Te) poisoning, macrophages infiltrated the endoneurium and then began to express cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for apolipoproteín E (apo E). When demyelinating nerve slices were incubated with S35-methionine, radiolabeled apo E was released, showing that apo E was actively synthesized by the macrophages. Macrophages secreted apo E into the endoneurial spaces, leading to dense endoneurial accumulations. Other apolipoproteins (apo Al and albumin) were not synthesized in the endoneurium, but they entered edematous nerves, presumably through an early breakdown in the blood-nerve barrier. During the phagocytosis of myelin, plasma-derived apolipoproteins accumulated within some of the macrophages. In chronic demyelination caused by lead poisoning, the cellular and extracellular distribution of apolipoproteins was similar to Te neuropathy; the amount of apo E accumulation and the macrophage density were proportional to the prevalence of active demyelination in teased fibers. Similar patterns of endoneurial apo E were present in an inherited form of demyelination in the twitcher mouse, after antibody-mediated demyelination, and in demyelination secondary to axonal degeneration. Human sural nerve biopsies had patterns of apolipoprotein E antigenicity that were comparable to the rodent models. We conclude that secretion of apo E by infiltrating macrophages is a generalized response to demyelination, and that endoneurial edema leads to the accumulation of certain plasma apolipoproteins within macrophages. These data suggest that endoneurial apolipoproteins and macrophages might mediate important functions in patients recovering from primary and secondary demyelination.

Synthesis of apolipoprotein A-1 in pig brain microvascular endothelial cells

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) synthesis has been examined in rat and guinea pig tissues using in vitro translation and [35S]methionine labeling of tissue slices. A number of tissues not involved in lipoprotein synthesis synthesize a protein very similar to apoE, including the spleen, adrenal, kidney, testis, ovary, heart, and lung. Although the intestine is involved in lipoprotein synthesis, apoE synthesis could not be detected in intestinal mucosa. The protein synthesized by the extrahepatic tissues was identified as apoE by its electrophoretic mobility, its immunologic reactivity with a monospecific antibody and by limited proteolysis mapping with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. ApoE represented between 0.02 and 0.7% of the total protein synthesized in the extrahepatic tissues, indicating that apoE mRNA is a fairly abundant mRNA in these tissues. ApoE mRNA was also detected by hybridization with a rat apoE cDNA clone, which hybridized to a single mRNA 1250 nucleotides in length in rat liver and in extrahepatic tissues. Hybridization of the apoE clone to rat genomic DNA demonstrated that the apoE gene was more heavily methylated in intestinal mucosa which did not synthesize apoE, than in liver, testis, or kidney. 35S labeling of peritoneal macrophages revealed that both rat and guinea pig macrophages synthesized and secreted apoE in vitro. Rhesus aortic smooth muscle cells also synthesized and secreted apoE. The possible functions of apoE synthesized in the peripheral tissues are considered.

Synthesis of apolipoprotein A-1 in pig brain …

Stimulation of jejunal synthesis of apolipoprotein A-IV …

The synthesis and endoneurial distribution of apolipoproteins in response to myelin degradation was elucidated morphologically and biochemically in rodent models of segmental demyelination. At the onset of acute demyelination induced by tellurium (Te) poisoning, macrophages infiltrated the endoneurium and then began to express cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for apolipoproteín E (apo E). When demyelinating nerve slices were incubated with S35-methionine, radiolabeled apo E was released, showing that apo E was actively synthesized by the macrophages. Macrophages secreted apo E into the endoneurial spaces, leading to dense endoneurial accumulations. Other apolipoproteins (apo Al and albumin) were not synthesized in the endoneurium, but they entered edematous nerves, presumably through an early breakdown in the blood-nerve barrier. During the phagocytosis of myelin, plasma-derived apolipoproteins accumulated within some of the macrophages. In chronic demyelination caused by lead poisoning, the cellular and extracellular distribution of apolipoproteins was similar to Te neuropathy; the amount of apo E accumulation and the macrophage density were proportional to the prevalence of active demyelination in teased fibers. Similar patterns of endoneurial apo E were present in an inherited form of demyelination in the twitcher mouse, after antibody-mediated demyelination, and in demyelination secondary to axonal degeneration. Human sural nerve biopsies had patterns of apolipoprotein E antigenicity that were comparable to the rodent models. We conclude that secretion of apo E by infiltrating macrophages is a generalized response to demyelination, and that endoneurial edema leads to the accumulation of certain plasma apolipoproteins within macrophages. These data suggest that endoneurial apolipoproteins and macrophages might mediate important functions in patients recovering from primary and secondary demyelination.

N2 - Apolipoprotein E (apoE) synthesis has been examined in rat and guinea pig tissues using in vitro translation and [35S]methionine labeling of tissue slices. A number of tissues not involved in lipoprotein synthesis synthesize a protein very similar to apoE, including the spleen, adrenal, kidney, testis, ovary, heart, and lung. Although the intestine is involved in lipoprotein synthesis, apoE synthesis could not be detected in intestinal mucosa. The protein synthesized by the extrahepatic tissues was identified as apoE by its electrophoretic mobility, its immunologic reactivity with a monospecific antibody and by limited proteolysis mapping with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. ApoE represented between 0.02 and 0.7% of the total protein synthesized in the extrahepatic tissues, indicating that apoE mRNA is a fairly abundant mRNA in these tissues. ApoE mRNA was also detected by hybridization with a rat apoE cDNA clone, which hybridized to a single mRNA 1250 nucleotides in length in rat liver and in extrahepatic tissues. Hybridization of the apoE clone to rat genomic DNA demonstrated that the apoE gene was more heavily methylated in intestinal mucosa which did not synthesize apoE, than in liver, testis, or kidney. 35S labeling of peritoneal macrophages revealed that both rat and guinea pig macrophages synthesized and secreted apoE in vitro. Rhesus aortic smooth muscle cells also synthesized and secreted apoE. The possible functions of apoE synthesized in the peripheral tissues are considered.

Regulation of Apolipoprotein Synthesis - John Taylor

Synthesis of apolipoprotein B lipoparticles to deliver hydrophobic/ amphiphilic materials. / Chu, Hsueh Liang; Cheng, Tsai Mu; Chen, Hung Wei; …

N2 - The pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis, a prerequisite of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is poorly understood. Because very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) formation is the chief route of hepatic lipid export, we hypothesized that the synthesis of apoB-100, a rate-determining step in hepatic VLDL formation, may be altered in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study evaluated the relative synthesis rates of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) in patients with NASH and in lean and body mass index (BMI)-matched (obese) controls without NASH. A primed continuous infusion of L-[1-13C] leucine was used to measure the absolute synthesis rates (ASR) of apoB-100 and fibrinogen in 7 patients with NASH and compared them with 7 lean and 7 obese (BMI-matched) controls without NASH. The ASRs of fibrinogen and albumin also were measured. The mean ASR of apoB-100 in patients with NASH was lower (31.5 ± 3.4 mg/kg/d) than that of obese (115.2 ± 7.2 mg/kg/d, P

AB - The pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis, a prerequisite of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is poorly understood. Because very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) formation is the chief route of hepatic lipid export, we hypothesized that the synthesis of apoB-100, a rate-determining step in hepatic VLDL formation, may be altered in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study evaluated the relative synthesis rates of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) in patients with NASH and in lean and body mass index (BMI)-matched (obese) controls without NASH. A primed continuous infusion of L-[1-13C] leucine was used to measure the absolute synthesis rates (ASR) of apoB-100 and fibrinogen in 7 patients with NASH and compared them with 7 lean and 7 obese (BMI-matched) controls without NASH. The ASRs of fibrinogen and albumin also were measured. The mean ASR of apoB-100 in patients with NASH was lower (31.5 ± 3.4 mg/kg/d) than that of obese (115.2 ± 7.2 mg/kg/d, P

20/12/2017 · Synthesis and Regulation of Apolipoprotein E during the Differentiation of Human Neuronal Precursor NT2/D1 Cells into Postmitotic Neurons
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Cardiovascular and Metabolic Effects of ANGPTL3 …

The pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis, a prerequisite of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is poorly understood. Because very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) formation is the chief route of hepatic lipid export, we hypothesized that the synthesis of apoB-100, a rate-determining step in hepatic VLDL formation, may be altered in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study evaluated the relative synthesis rates of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) in patients with NASH and in lean and body mass index (BMI)-matched (obese) controls without NASH. A primed continuous infusion of L-[1-13C] leucine was used to measure the absolute synthesis rates (ASR) of apoB-100 and fibrinogen in 7 patients with NASH and compared them with 7 lean and 7 obese (BMI-matched) controls without NASH. The ASRs of fibrinogen and albumin also were measured. The mean ASR of apoB-100 in patients with NASH was lower (31.5 ± 3.4 mg/kg/d) than that of obese (115.2 ± 7.2 mg/kg/d, P

Project Mass: Jake Wilson's 14-Week Muscle-Building …

AB - Apolipoprotein E (apoE) synthesis has been examined in rat and guinea pig tissues using in vitro translation and [35S]methionine labeling of tissue slices. A number of tissues not involved in lipoprotein synthesis synthesize a protein very similar to apoE, including the spleen, adrenal, kidney, testis, ovary, heart, and lung. Although the intestine is involved in lipoprotein synthesis, apoE synthesis could not be detected in intestinal mucosa. The protein synthesized by the extrahepatic tissues was identified as apoE by its electrophoretic mobility, its immunologic reactivity with a monospecific antibody and by limited proteolysis mapping with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. ApoE represented between 0.02 and 0.7% of the total protein synthesized in the extrahepatic tissues, indicating that apoE mRNA is a fairly abundant mRNA in these tissues. ApoE mRNA was also detected by hybridization with a rat apoE cDNA clone, which hybridized to a single mRNA 1250 nucleotides in length in rat liver and in extrahepatic tissues. Hybridization of the apoE clone to rat genomic DNA demonstrated that the apoE gene was more heavily methylated in intestinal mucosa which did not synthesize apoE, than in liver, testis, or kidney. 35S labeling of peritoneal macrophages revealed that both rat and guinea pig macrophages synthesized and secreted apoE in vitro. Rhesus aortic smooth muscle cells also synthesized and secreted apoE. The possible functions of apoE synthesized in the peripheral tissues are considered.

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