Benzoic acid occurs naturally in many plants and in animals.
Acyl halides are made by replacing the -OH group in carboxylic acids by halogen using halogenating agents.
Determination of sorbic acid, benzoic acid, and saccharin in yogurt.
A rough estimation based on the average daily consumption in Germany of such drinks (372 ml non-alcoholic beverages, excluding bottled water; BAGS, 1995) by 19- to 24-year-old men, assuming the concentration of benzoic acid present corresponds to a maximum allowable level of 150 mg/litre (EC, 1995), would result in a mean daily intake of 55.8 mg benzoic acid per person (or 0.80 mg/kg body weight, assuming a 70-kg body weight).
Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate (see section 4.3.2) are used as preservatives in beverages, fruit products, chemically leavened baked goods, and condiments, preferably in a pH range below 4.5.
Benzoic acid has also been detected in animals (see section 6.1).
Benzoic acid and its salts and esters are found in 11 of 48 (23%) toothpastes (Sainio & Kanerva, 1995) to a maximum of 0.5% (Ishida, 1996) and in mouthwashes and dentifrices.
Benzoic acid is increasingly used in the production of diethylene and dipropylene glycol dibenzoate plasticizers in adhesive formulations (about 40 000 tonnes in 1997).
Geoaccumulation of benzoic acid has also been found to be low.
Benzoic acid is a breakdown product of benzoyl peroxide, which is used as an additive at levels of between 0.015% and 0.075% to bleach flour (Friedman & Greenwald, 1994) and in dermatological antifungal preparations (BMA, 1998).
Benzoic acid is reported to leach from denture-base acrylic resins, where benzoyl peroxide is added as a polymerization initiator (Koda et al., 1989, 1990).
Table 5: Genotoxicity of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate in vitro.
Table 7: Aquatic toxicity of benzoic acid.
WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate.
Benzoic acid was not skin sensitizing in several animal models.
Reproductive toxicity of benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde
In vivo studies for benzoic acid were not identified.
Criteria for setting tolerable intakes or guidance values for benzoic acid and sodium benzoate
Benzoic acid occurs naturally in many plants.
4.3.1 Benzoic acid In 1988, of the benzoic acid produced in Europe, about 60% was further processed to phenol and 30% to caprolactam (for nylon fibres).
In: Physiological activity of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate.
Possibly the largest use of sodium benzoate, accounting for 30-35% of the total demand (about 15 000 tonnes of benzoic acid), is as an anticorrosive, particularly as an additive to automotive engine antifreeze coolants and in other waterborne systems (Scholz & Kortmann, 1991; Srour, 1998).
Halvorson DO (1984) Determination of benzoic acid in air.
From data provided by the German producers, emissions of benzoic acid from industrial processes were less than 525 kg per year into the atmosphere, less than 3 tonnes per year into the River Rhine, and 8 tonnes per year into sewage or water purification plants (BUA, 1995).
(1983) Primary eye irritation of benzoic acid to rabbits.
Other anthropogenic releases of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate into the environment are emissions into water and soil from their uses as preservatives in food, toothpastes, mouthwashes, dentifrices, and cosmetics.
Synthesis of 4-bromobenzoyl chloride ..
Benzoic acid has been detected in wastewater from the wood production industry in Norway and Sweden (Carlberg et al., 1986; Lindström & Österberg, 1986) and in foundry waste leachates (Ham et al., 1989), as well as in extracts of fly ash from municipal incinerators (Tong et al., 1984).
Preparation of benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol from benzaldehyde.
There were no data available on the emission of benzoic acid from the disposal of antifreeze mixtures and waterborne cooling systems and other miscellaneous industrial uses.
Synthesis of Benzyl Chloride - Erowid
ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT, DISTRIBUTION, TRANSFORMATION, AND ACCUMULATION 5.1.1 Benzoic acid From its use pattern (see section 4), it can be expected that benzoic acid is released to surface waters and (from dumping sites) to leaching water (and groundwater).
"I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."
"Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."
"Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."
"Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."
"Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."
"Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."