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It is formed by the condensation of methanol and benzoic acid.

WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate.

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Obviously, your new job is at a sodium benzoate plant, shill!

Benzoic acid is a breakdown product of benzoyl peroxide, which is used as an additive at levels of between 0.015% and 0.075% to bleach flour (Friedman & Greenwald, 1994) and in dermatological antifungal preparations (BMA, 1998).

Is your wife sensitive to the foods listed in this article which naturally contain sodium benzoate?

Las concentraciones máximas notificadas de ácido benzoico o benzoato de sodio añadido a los productos alimenticios con fines de conservación fueron del orden de 2000 mg/kg de alimentos.

Natural sources of benzoic acid

To quote a Letterman Top 10 from quite some time ago….M’m! M’m! SODIUM BENZOATE!

In a short-term inhalation study with rats exposed to benzoic acid (0, 25, 250, or 1200 mg dust aerosol/m3; 6 h per day, 5 days per week, over 4 weeks), indications of fibrosis in the lung were seen even at the lowest concentration.

Studies on the precursors of benzoic acid -- benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde -- support the notion that it is unlikely that benzoic acid is carcinogenic.

Carcinogenicity of benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde

Reproductive toxicity of benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde

phosphoreum (1987) (Microtox test: bioluminescence reduction) Cyanobacteria Anabaena inaequalis Stratton & (cell multiplication - 14-day EC50 9 Corke (1982) inhibition test) (static) (photosynthesis - 3-h EC50 5 reduction) Algae Scenedesmus quadricauda (cell multiplication pH neutral 8-day MIC 1630 Bringmann & inhibition test) Kuehn (1977) (static) (photosynthesis reduction) - 3-h EC50 75 Stratton & Corke (1982) Table 7 (cont'd) Most sensitive species Special Effective Reference (test method/end-point) features concentration (mg/litre) Chlorella pyrenoides (photosynthesis reduction) - 3-h EC50 60 Stratton & Corke (1982) Protozoa Uronema parduczi (cell multiplication pH 6.9 20-h MIC 31 Bringmann & inhibition test) Kuehn (1980) Tetrahymena pyriformis (cell multiplication - 2-day EC50 252 Schultz et al.

promelas; juvenile stages) resulted in 96-h LC50 values of 484 mg sodium benzoate/litre (measured concentration; flow-through system; pH 7.4; 24°C) (Geiger et al., 1985) and >100 mg/litre (nominal concentration; static system; pH 6.5-8.5; 20°C) (Ewell et al., 1986).

Criteria for setting tolerable intakes or guidance values for benzoic acid and sodium benzoate
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  • Benzoic acid occurs naturally in many plants and in animals.

    Some blue light will convert your sodium benzoate to benzene, this will not happen with benzoic acid.

  • ; C7H5O2Na; benzoic acid, sodium salt [E 211 (EU No.

    No, I was wrong. Benzoic acid is excreted as a glycine conjugate, acetyl-CoA is needed for an intermediate step.

  • Benzoic acid has also been detected in animals (see section 6.1).

    Sodium benzoate

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Geoaccumulation of benzoic acid has also been found to be low.

Fun fact: that benzoate to hippuric acid experiment you mentioned is also in Laboratory experiments in organic chemistry, 5th edition by Adams, Johnson and Wilcox. This was published in the mid-50s. I can upload the relevant pages if there’s any interest here.

Above pH 6, the benzoate anion prevails (Chipley, 1983).

I actually participated in the Urination Derby as an undergrad back in 1975. Our Biochem professor divided the lab into partners. One had to do the biosynthesis by drinking a measured amount of sodium benzoate, collecting urine over the next hours, and isolating the hippurate. The other had to do a chemical synthesis of hippuric acid from glycine and benzoyl chloride. You could tell the students doing the biosynthesis by their pale faces and stoic expressions–the human stomach is not particularly happy with benzoate solutions. The big problem with the experiment was that we were using a Bio Department lab that had only one fume hood. This was used to dispense the benzoyl chloride, which is a potent lachrymator. This meant that over the course of the experiment there were students carrying around open beakers of both urine and benzoyl chloride. The air in the lab got pretty foul!

Another metabolite of benzoate is the benzoyl glucuronide.

Reading my 1939 “Fortunes In Formulas for Home, Farm, and Workshop” where they describe how to test for sodium benzoate, using chloroform (!) mixed into the sample and allowed to evaporate out on a handy windowsill. The list of chemicals used in this book is as long as my arm, and the authors assume the reader can pick them up easily at the local chemist. Oh how dumb Americans have gotten in a mere 78 years.

Table 5: Genotoxicity of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate in vitro.

Panera’s logic might have been off, but benzoic acid/sodium benzoate in beverages, particularly in combination with ascorbic acid, has been shown to decarboxylate to give ppb levels of benzene, when exposed to heat/light.

Table 7: Aquatic toxicity of benzoic acid.

Penicillamine, mw 149 ish, was the smallest hapten I ever encountered shown unequivocally to lead to allergic reactions. It would appear that benzoic acid has extended that lower limit, at least by a few amu.

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