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In mammalian systems, production of3-hydroxy oxylipins is mainly attributed to fatty acid oxidation disorders.

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Process for preparing Beta-hydroxy fatty acid. - WAKO …

Traumatin and derivatives are likely to play a role in defense against fungi, bacteria and arthropods ().

The homolytic cleavage of fatty acid peroxides by hydroperoxide lyase gives an alcohol (or hydrocarbon) and a w-oxo acid (aldehydic fatty acid) ().
In mushrooms (), the production of 10-oxo-8E-decenoic acid from linoleic acid was demonstrated ().

The biological production of w-hydroxy fatty acids represents an emerging biotechnology ().
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It was reported for the first time in the seed oil of the desert rose Adenium obesum in which it is present at a level of around 26 % (Smith MA et al., JAOCS 2016, 93, 105).
This fatty acid was named strophantus acid and it is a potential renewable feedstock for the oleochemical industry, mainly as a precursor for the synthesis of antimicrobial compounds.

As castor seed production presents some problems (toxicity of the seed, allergic reactions), species were proposed as a valuable source in the USA (up to 70% in the oil) of ricinoleic acid but also of lesquerolic acid, the C20 homologue of ricinoleic acid (14-hydroxy-11-eicosenoic acid).


It was named axillarenicacid.Two dihydroxy fatty acids have been isolated from floral oils produced byvarious flowers ().
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T1 - Efficient and practical asymmetric synthesis of the taxol C-13 side chain, N-benzoyl-(2R,3S)-3-phenylisoserine, and its analogues via chiral 3-hydroxy-4-aryl-β-lactams through chiral ester enolate-imine cyclocondensation

The asymmetric aldol reaction of 1,2-diketones, masked as nonracemic 2-acyl dithiane oxides, with lithium enolates derived from several esters and lactones, proceeds with a high degree of stereocontrol at both carbonyl and enolate prochiral centers, the stereocontrol mainly determined by the configuration of the sulfoxide sulfur atom. The sense of induced stereochemistry observed for ester enolates is different from that seen for lactone enolates. Hydrolysis of the dithiane oxide units of the major diastereoisomerically pure aldol products affords enantiomerically pure tertiary alpha-substituted beta-hydroxy-gamma-ketoesters.

Cholesterol: Synthesis, Metabolism, Regulation

In leucocytes (neutrophiles), 13-hydroxy-18:2 (coriolic acid) is produced through enzymatic activity.
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1882, 15, 977) using the procedure of thermal dehydration of ammonium salts discovered by the famous French chemist Dumas (Dumas J, Ann chim phys 1830, 44, 29).

Fatty acid alkanolamides are industrially produced from fatty acids (largely from coconut oil) and alkanolamines, such as ethanolamine, by heating at about 150°C for 6-12 h ().

Prost Lipid Mediat 2005, 78, 10).

Maresin 1 (7,14-dihydroxydocosa-4 Z ,8,10,12,16 Z ,19 Z -hexaenoic acid) is a new lipoxygenase product from DHA produced in macrophages.

Benzenepropanoic acid, beta-amino-alpha-hydroxy-, methyl ester, (alpha-S,beta-R)- ..
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    07/03/1990 · This invention relates to a novel process for preparing beta -hydroxy-fatty acids ..

  • Unnatural Amino Acids & Derivatives

    synthesis of beta -hydroxy ..

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    Beta hydroxy acid - Revolvy

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1,2-Amino Alcohols and Their Heterocyclic Derivatives …

Castor oil is also used to make emulsifier after transesterification of fatty acids from the glycerol to the hydroxyl group in ricinoleic acid and ethoxylation to give castor oil polyethylene glycol ().
The production of conjugated linoleic acid by dehydration and isomerization of ricinoleic acid has been described ().
Castor oil can be reacted with sulfuric acid to make Turkey-Red Oil, the first synthetic detergent or surfactant after ordinary soap, a predecessor to sodium lauryl sulfate.

Lipid Peroxidation: Production, Metabolism, and …

Furthermore, they could be potential candidates in the treatment of atherosclerosis (., J Nat Prod 2016, 79, 1137). It has been shown that worker bees secrete acids functionalized at the last (w) position, such as 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid and its saturated counterpart, while the honeybee queen produces pheromones such as 9-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, and other acids functionalized at the penultimate (w-1) position ().

Several parent molecules have been described in the royal jelly ().

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This compound then acts as substrate for the host cyclooxygenase-2 (COX- 2), leading to the production of potent pro-inflammatory 3-OH prostaglandin E2 ().

3-Hydroxy fatty acids with two conjugated double bonds and 16 or 18 carbon atoms have been described in Fijian green macroalgae () ().

butyric acid, 107-92-6 - The Good Scents Company

3-OH-14:2 produced from 18:2, as a signal for expression of genes responsible for accelerating cell morphogenesis at a certain population density.
It was also found that this yeast converts arachidonic acid, released from infected host cells, to a 3-OH oxylipin (3-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid or 3-HETE) via incomplete mitochondrial beta-oxidation.

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γ-Hydroxy ether-α,β-unsaturated ester 23 () is a key intermediate in a recent synthesis of the biologically active alkaloid (+)-α-conhydrine (24). Intermediate 23 was prepared in 6 steps and 32% overall yield from (S)-glycidol. Using the methodology described here we have prepared intermediate ester 23 in only 4 steps and in 47% overall yield and 97% ee ().

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