11/01/2018 · Procedure
The synthesis of demerol is briefly shown in Organikum, where another route is used: Benzyl cyanide is condensed with N …
Isonicotinic Acid Methochloride
The isolation of morphine was the beginning of alkaloid chemistry, which has yielded many important medicinal substances. Although a satisfactory theory of analgesic structure or action still eludes us, experimenters have developed a number of synthetic analgesics related to morphine. The oldest is (also known as meperidine, Demerol and about 40 other names). It was synthesised in 1939 by the German chemist Otto Eisleb. It is less potent than morphine, but is still widely used for the relief of post-operative pain. By replacing one of the -OH groups with a methoxy group, morphine is converted into , another powerful painkiller. When mixed with paracetamol it goes by the trade name . When ingested, the -OCH3 group is converted back to -OH, regenerating morphine.
Meperidine (pethidine, demerol; compound 50, Figure 16) is approximately 50% as potent an analgesic as is morphine and has a safety margin of only 4.8 as compared to 71 for morphine (Janssen 1985) Hence, one would assume that the continued abuse of meperidine is most probably related to the ease with which it can be diverted from commercial channels rather than it's applicability to drug abuse per se. It has been noted that there are some 4000 compounds which may be related chemically to meperidine (Burger 1970). It should be pointed out that of these 4000 compounds, many are not classified as analgesics, and they must also include the closely allied prodine and ketobemidone derivatives. The most potent analgesics of the meperidine class of compounds, as is the case with the prodine class of compounds, all appear to already be controlled under Schedule I and the less potent but clinically useful derivatives controlled under Schedule II. The most interesting compound from the view point of clandestine synthesis would have to be phenoperidine (compound 51, Figure 16) as analgesic activity is approximately 30 times that of morphine and the safety margin is increased, relative to meperidine, quite substantially (Janssen 1985). Fentanyl (compound 52, Figure 17) is an analgesic of high potency, approximately 300 times that of morphine, which was developed by Janssen in 1962 (Janssen 1962b) and is N-[(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl]-N-phenyl-propanamide. The first CsA of fentanyl came to the attention of law enforcement in late 1979 but was not identified until 1981 (Allen et al. 1981). In the next three years a procession of new fentanyl CsA's appeared in the illicit drug market. The abuse of fentanyl CsA's peaked in 1985 and has since decreased dramatically (Henderson 1987), a phenomena which was the result of DEA successfully terminating the operation of the responsible laboratories. However, the ripple effect is still being felt as international and national meetings have been held to discuss the problems presented by CsA's. Also, legislation, such as the U. S. CsA amendment, has been passed in order to allow law enforcement to deal more efficiently with the analog problem.
Pethidine can be produced in a two-step synthesis.
Though it is often difficult to surpass the established therapeutic records and efficiency profiles by the aforementioned drugs, occasionally new drug candidates are identified that accomplish this seemingly difficult feat. Such is the case for a class of synthetic alkaloids whose birth and swift entrance in the medical field of anesthesiology originated with the synthesis of fentanyl (4, ) by Paul Janssen in 1960 –. Since its synthesis, inspired partly by the necessity to improve the potency and bioavailability of the structurally related opiate Demerol (3), fentanyl analogs with superior pharmacokinetic properties, onset time, and effective dosage have been successfully produced , . Currently, a significant array of fentanyl analogs exists spanning a large range of physicochemical properties, which strictly determine their ultimate application. Some of these compounds, along with their potency relative to morphine, are given in , .
Trade names for meperidine include DEMEROL and PETHADOL
The international nonproprietary name is pethidine
Pethidine (Demerol, Meperidine) Synthesis - …
DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART Meperidine, otherwise known as Demerol is a well known and well established analgesic
Pethidine Accession Number DB00454 (APRD00074) ..
Pethidine - Wikipedia
An Efficient, Optimized Synthesis of Fentanyl and …
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, ..
"I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."
"Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."
"Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."
"Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."
"Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."
"Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."