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Synthesis and Application of Glycopeptide and Glycoprotein Mimetics.

Living Radical Polymerization as a Tool for the Synthesis of Polymer-Protein/Peptide Bioconjugates.

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H., His6 tag-assisted chemical protein synthesis.

In the process, it introduces the CuA center in four different systems---native protein systems, soluble protein truncates of native proteins, synthetic models using organic molecules, and biosynthetic models using proteins as ligands---with a greater emphasis on biosynthetic models of CuA, especially on new, deeper insights gained from their studies.

M., Synthesis of bio-inspired hybrid polymers using peptide synthesis and protein engineering.

R.; Lober, S.; Hubner, H.; Gmeiner, P., Click chemistry on solid phase: parallel synthesis of -benzyltriazole carboxamides as super-potent G-protein coupled receptor ligands.

Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as MRI …

W., Protein semi-synthesis: New proteins for functional and structural studies.

Although many synthetic routes have been developed for the preparation of iron oxide core with tunable shape, size and magnetization, several challenges remain for the naked SPIONs in terms of stem cell labeling, including: (i) poor water solubility and tendency of aggregation due to large surface/volume ratio; (ii) low cellular uptake efficiency; (iii) potential toxicity. To address these problems, the most straightforward and effective method seems to be coating the iron oxide core by a layer. The nature of the surface coatings and modification methods determine the physical and biologic properties such as the overall size, surface charge, coating density, toxicity and degradability, which finally affect the fate of SPIONPs in the cells [, ]. This following section focuses on the currently used surface modification materials (e.g. PLL, PEI, chitosan, PEG, citric acid and so on) and methods (e.g. coating, post-synthesis coatings including blending, polymerization, ligand exchange) for the SPIONs applied for stem cell labeling and tracking. The influence of these factors on labeling efficiency and biocompatibility is also discussed.

The mixing of polymers and nanoparticles is opening pathways for engineering flexible composites that exhibit advantageous magnetic, electrical, optical, or mechanical properties. As part of this renewed interest in nanocomposites, researchers began seeking new strategies to engineer materials that combine the desirable properties of nanoparticles and polymers for the formation of PINCs. The research revealed a number of key challenges in producing PINCs with the desired behavior. The greatest hindrance to the large-scale production and commercialization of PINCs is the absence of cost-effective methods for controlling the dispersion of the nanoparticles in polymeric hosts. The nanoscale particles typically aggregate, which cancels out any benefits associated with the dimension (). The particles must be integrated in a way leading to isolated, well-dispersed primary nanoparticles inside the matrix. There is a need for establishing processing techniques that are effective on the nanoscale yet are applicable to macroscopic processing. Synthetic strategies for PINCs with a high homogeneity are, therefore, really a challenge. There have been several attempts for the synthesis of PINCs that can be classified under two major categories: as physical and chemical methods. Physical methods include solvent processing; melt-processing, polymer melt intercalation whereas chemical methods are in-situ processes () as will be detailed in the following sections.

Molecular beacon-decorated polymethylmethacrylate …

L., One-Step Synthesis of Labeled Sugar Nucleotides for Protein -GlcNAc Modification Studies by Chemical Function Analysis of an Archaeal Protein.

82. Li Z, Yi PW, Sun Q, Lei H, Zhao HL, Zhu ZH, Smith SC, Lan MB, Lu GQ. Ultrasmall Water-Soluble and Biocompatible Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Positive and Negative Dual Contrast Agents. 2012;22:2387-93

85. Lee JE, Lee N, Kim H, Kim J, Choi SH, Kim JH, Kim T, Song IC, Park SP, Moon WK, Hyeon T. Uniform Mesoporous Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticles Decorated with Multiple Magnetite Nanocrystals for Simultaneous Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Fluorescence Imaging, and Drug Delivery. 2010;132:552-7

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  • Synthesis and bactericidal evaluation of imide N …

    Syntheses of Hemoprotein Models that can be Covalently Attached onto Electrode Surfaces by Click Chemistry.

  • Sulfonates-PMMA nanoparticles conjugates: A versatile system for ..

    The contrast agent is composed of thrombin aptamer functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

  • (PMMA)-based core-shell nanoparticles ..

    J., Synthesis and Evaluation of Coumermycin A1 Analogues that Inhibit the Hsp90 Protein Folding Machinery.

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Synthesis of phosphonate-functionalized polystyrene …

80. Cheong S, Ferguson P, Feindel KW, Hermans IF, Callaghan PT, Meyer C, Slocombe A, Su CH, Cheng FY, Yeh CS, Ingham B, Toney MF, Tilley RD. Simple Synthesis and Functionalization of Iron Nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2011;50:4206-09

Synthesis of phosphonate-functionalized polystyrene ..

What remains unclear is how DNA can carry out catalysis with simpler building blocks and fewer functional groups than ribozymes and protein enzymes and how DNA can bind metal ions specifically to perform these functions.

The presence of a fluorescent dye within a polymeric ..

Studies on PL PINCs started recently from the early 2000s. Lee et al. () and Erskine et al. () embedded CdSe nanocrystals in poly(lauryl methacrylate) and PS matrices, respectively. shows the color fluorescence image of QD-poly(lauryl methacrylate) composite rods under a UV lamp (). The QDs used in were ZnS-overcoated CdSe with a core radii of 10, 23, and 28 Å, showing nearly pure color emissions (). Farmer and patten () reported synthesis of PL films comprised of core-shell CdS/SiO2 as inorganic nano-fillers and PMMA as the polymer matrix. Zhang et al. () incorporated fluorescent CdTe nanocrystals into PS and PMMA. In 2008, Sun et al. () and Ventura and Gu () demonstrated 3-D photonic crystals based on embedding polymer with CdS and PbSe QDs. Very recently, Yordanov et al. presented a photo-activated fluorescence from core/shell quantum dots of CdSe/CdS incorporated in a poly(butylmethacrylate) matrix (). Since the toxicity of Cd, Se, As, or Pb-containing materials may lower their applicability in commercial devices, other PL semiconductor nanocrystals, such as doped ZnS, were also used as inorganic nano-fillers for PL PINCs ().

Synthesis of ratiometric fluorescent nanoparticles for sensing oxygen

90. Santra S, Kaittanis C, Grimm J, Perez JM. Drug/Dye-Loaded, Multifunctional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Combined Targeted Cancer Therapy and Dual Optical/Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2009;5:1862-8

Synthesis of Monodisperse Chitosan Nanoparticles and …

BLI, bioluminescence imaging; CH, chitosan; CLIO, cross-linked iron oxide; CT, computed tomography; Gd-DTPA, gadolinium diethylene-trianmine pentaacetic acid; FITC, fluoresceine isothiocyanate; FLI, fluorescence imaging; HA, hyaluronic acid; LMWP, low molecular weight protamine; Micron-sized particles, MPs; MR, magnetic resonance; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; MSC, mesenchymal stem cells; MSNs, mesoporous silica nanoparticles; Nanoparticles, NPs, NSC, neural stem cell; PAA, poly(acrylic acid); PDMAAm, poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide); PEG, poly(ethylene glycol); PEG-PLA, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-glutamic acid); PEI, poly(ethyleneimine); PEI-SA, stearic acid-grafted polyethyleneimine copolymers; PET, positron emission tomography; PLGA, poly(lactide-co-glycolide); PLL, poly-L-lysine); PLMA: poly(DL-lactic acid-co-α,β-malic acid) copolymer; PMMA, poly(methylmethacrylate); , longitudinal relaxivity; , transverse relaxivity; RES, reticuloendothelial system; RITC: rhodamine B isothiocyanate; SPECT, single photon emission computed tomography; SPIONs, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles;, longitudinal relaxation time; , transverse relaxation time; TAs, transfection agents.

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