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THE SYNTHESIS OF GLUTAMATE AND THE CONTROL OF GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE IN PEA MITOCHONDRIA ..

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-Synthesis of glutamate filled synaptic vesicles

can act as neuromodulator when glutamate stimulation of NMDA receptorsresults in nitric oxide synthesis & release — enhancing neurotransmitter release from adjacent synapses.

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Synthesis or guanine or adenine involves the addition of an amino group in the appropriate place. To form guanine monophosphate (GMP), IMP is first oxidized to xanthosine monophosphate. This adds a ketone group (see figure) that is attacked by the ammonia on glutamine in the next reaction yielding GMP. The cost to the cell is one ATP. In the synthesis of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), IMP first combines with aspartate and in a second reaction the combination is split into fumarate and AMP. The cost to the cell is one GTP. It is interesting to note that synthesis of ATP from IMP requires GTP as an energy source and not ATP.

AMMONIA METABOLISM Urea CYCLE - Scribd

Neurology/Stroke Albumin promotes neuronal survival by increasing the synthesis and release of glutamate. Tabernero A, Granda B, …

Pyrimidine synthesis is simpler due to the single ring of these . The synthesis of pyrimidines begins by combining glutamine, 2 ATP and bicarbonate to form glutamate, 2 ADP and carbamoylphosphate. Aspartate next reacts with carbamoylphosphate forming carbamoylasparate. In the critical third step, carbamoylasparate is cyclized to form the recognizable 6 membered ring of pyrimidines. Later in the pathway, PRPP is combined with the six membered ring to form orotidine 5'-phosphate. Removal of CO2 results in the formation of Uradine monophosphate (UMP). Two kinase reactions (addition of phosphate) finally form UTP. An addition of an amino group to UTP results in the formation of CTP. The synthesis of UTP uses 4 ATP (not counting the formation of PRPP) and making CTP adds an extra ATP to the cost.

Purine synthesis starts by the addition of an ammonia from glutamine to PRPP. In six more step the five membered ring of purines in synthesized with a net cost of five ATP. Glycine, tetrahydorfolate (a one carbon carrier that donates a methyl group), glutamine, and bicarbonate (HCO3-) all donate parts of the five membered ring, the final product being 5'-phosphoribosyl-5-aminoimidazole-4-carbonate (CAIR).

Glutamine synthetase - Wikipedia

Glutamate is synthesized by the reductive amination of α-ketoglutarate catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase



WHEN?
Anaerobic (no or decrease in oxygen)

During extended periods of fasting (eg baby not feeding well, Ramadan fasting/puasa bulan Ramadhan), skeletal muscle is degraded as an alternative source of energy.


WHERE?
WHO?
Glutamate
Pyruvate
α-ketoglutarate
Alanine
ALT(Alanine transaminase)

ALANINE BIOSYNTHESIS
Alanine is a nonessential amino acid.

Alanine is found in a wide variety of foods, but is particularly concentrated in meats.

Alanine is the major amino acid present when muscle (protein) is degraded.

Good sources of alanine include:

Animal sources: meat, seafood, dairy products, eggs, fish, gelatine.

Vegetarian sources: beans, nuts, seeds, soy,, brown rice, corn, legumes, whole grains

THE END :)
GLUCOSE-ALANINE CYCLE
LET'S GO!!!
PRODUCTION OF ALANINE
Directly from protein degradation

Transamination of pyruvate by alanine transaminase, ALT (also referred to as serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, SGPT).

GLUTAMATE/GLUTAMINE BIOSYNTHESIS
Glutamate is synthesized by the reductive amination of α-ketoglutarate catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase

Glutamate arises by aminotransferase reactions, with the amino nitrogen being donated by a number of different amino acids  glutamate is a general collector of amino nitrogen

Reactions in skeletal muscle:

In muscle cells and other peripheral tissues, glycolysis produces pyruvate.
Pyruvate can be transaminated to alanine.
The transamination reaction requires an α-amino acid as donor of the amino group, generating an α-keto acid in the process.

Presentation Summary : Examples of two neurotransmitters are … Which organelle is required to provide energy for synthesis? Acetylcholine is removed from the synapse by …

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Neuroscience 5e: Chapter 6 Animations - Sinauer …

Field capacityFD fluorescence detectionFDA Food and Drug Administration (USA)FEF forced expiratory flowFEP free erythrocyte porphyrinFEV forced expiratory volumefg femtogram (10-15g)FI flame ionizationFID flame ionization detectorFMLP formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanineFMN flavin mononucleotideFOB functional observational batteryFPD flame photometric detectorFR flame retardantFS fluorescence spectrophotometryFSC Food Safety Council (USA)FSD flame photometric detector selective for sulfurFSH follicle-stimulating hormoneFTIR Fourier transform infraredFVC forced vital capacityGA gibberillic acidGABA gamma-aminobutyric acidGAG glycosaminoglycanGALT gut-associated lymphoid tissueGAP good agricultural practiceGBM glomerular basement membraneGC gas chromatographyGC-ECD gas chromatography with electron capture detectorGC-SIM gas chromatography with selected ion monitoringGDH glutamate dehydrogenaseGDMS glow discharge mass spectrometryGEMS Global Environmental Monitoring SystemGESAMP Group of Experts for the Scientific Aspects of Marine PollutionGFAAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometryGFR glomerular filtration rateGGT gamma-glutamyltranspeptidaseGH growth hormoneGI gastrointestinalGIFAP International Group of National Association of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products (French Acronym for: Groupement International des Associations Nationales de Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques)GLC gas-liquid chromatographyGLDH glutamate dehydrogenaseGLP good laboratory practicecGMP cyclic guanosine monophosphateGOT glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminaseGPC gel permeation chromatographyGPMT guinea-pig maximization testGPT glutamic-pyruvic transaminaseGS glutamine synthetaseGSH glutathione-SHGST glutathione-S-transferaseGTB glomerular tubular balanceGV guidance valueGWP global-warming potentialh hour(s)ha hectareHb haemoglobinHBCD hexabromocyclododecaneHBDH hydroxybutyric dehydrogenaseH & E haematoxolin and eosinHCB hexachlorobenzeneHCBD hexachloro-1,3-butadieneHCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbonHCFH-22 chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2)HCG human chorionic gonadotropinHCH hexachlorocyclohexaneHDL high density lipoproteinHDPE high density polyethyleneHEAL Human Exposure Assessment LocationHECD Hall electron capture detectorHEV high endothelial venuleHEX hexachlorocyclopentadieneHGPRT hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferaseHIPS high impact polystyreneHIV human immunodeficiency virusHLB hydrophilic-lipophilic balanceHLV hygienic limit valuehnRNA heterogeneous nuclear RNAHPCA human progenitor cell antigenHPI cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboximideHPLC high-performance liquid chromatographyHPTLC high-performance thin-layer chromatographyHQ hydroquinoneHS headspaceHSA heat-stable antigen; human serum albuminHSG Health and Safety GuideIARC International Agency for Research on CancerIC ion chromatographyICAM intercellular adhesion moleculeIC50 median inhibitory concentrationICD International Classification of DiseasesICG indocyanine greenICP inductively coupled plasmaICST isolated cold stress testingi.d.

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