The prostacyclin analogue iloprost and prostaglandin …
Iloprost (ZK 36374) is a synthetic analogue of prostacyclin PGI2
CREST Syndrome: Background, Pathophysiology, …
Iloprost is an analogue of epoprostenol (prostacyclin; PGI2; a potent but short-lived prostanoid mainly produced in the vascular endothelium) and mimics the pharmacodynamic properties of this compound, namely: inhibition of platelet aggregation, vasodilatation and, as yet ill-defined, cytoprotection. Improved metabolic and, in particular, chemical stability enhance the clinical utility of iloprost.
Most patients tolerate iloprost infusion rates of up to 2 ng/kg/min. Headache and flushing are extremely common and are the suggested end-point of dose titration, as higher doses are associated with a significant incidence of gastrointestinal distress and, ultimately, hypotension.
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When administered as an intermittent intravenous infusion at ⩽ 2 ng/kg/min for 2 to 4 weeks, iloprost reduced rest pain and improved ulcer healing in 40 to 60% of patients with critical leg ischaemia, including diabetic patients, and delayed amputation in the majority of responding individuals. Similar benefits have been seen in thromboangiitis obliterans and, in patients with severe Raynaud’s phenomenon, shorter courses of therapy reduced the frequency, intensity and duration of ischaemic episodes for at least 6 weeks. The very few comparative trials reported to date (i.e. vs nifedipine in Raynaud’s phenomenon; vs low-dose aspirin in thromboangiitis obliterans) have favoured iloprost, but comparisons with more established agents are needed to assess this drug’s value in less severe forms of peripheral ischaemia, such as intermittent claudication. At present, iloprost is administered intravenously and this is a limitation to treatment.
The pharmacodynamic profile of the synthetic epoprostenol analogue, iloprost, mimics that of the endogenous prostanoid, epoprostenol (PGI2; prostacyclin). Both are universal and potent inhibitors of platelet activation. Aggregation and release reactions stimulated by exposure to aggregating agents such as arachidonic acid, collagen or epinephrine (adrenaline) in vitro are essentially abolished by nanomolar concentrations of iloprost. There is significant inhibition of platelet aggregation (as measured ex vivo) during infusion of iloprost up to 2 ng/kg/min in healthy individuals and patients with peripheral vascular or myocardial ischaemic disease, but these effects decline rapidly once treatment is stopped. In contrast to results in healthy volunteers, plasma levels of platelet specific proteins are not decreased by infusion of iloprost in clinical settings associated with platelet activation. Studies in animal models of bleeding and vascular injury confirm a dose-related decrease in thrombogenesis similar to that of epoprostenol.
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The putative mechanism for the antiaggregatory effect of iloprost involves platelet receptor-mediated activation of adenyl cyclase which increases levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), thereby affecting phospholipase activity and cytosolic calcium levels. A decrease in epoprostenol receptor binding capacity, but not in receptor affinity, has been documented in human platelets exposed to iloprost over a prolonged period in vitro or in vivo. There are a few reports of increased aggregability during iloprost therapy or post-infusion (i.e. ‘rebound’ hyperreactivity). The mechanism for this effect has not been clarified; altered receptor status may be involved, but iloprost may also influence the activity of endogenous proaggregatory agents, such as thromboxane A2.
Iloprost is most commonly administered by intravenous infusion, achieving steady-state plasma concentrations of 85 ng/L when infused at a rate of 2 ng/kg/min in healthy volunteers. Plasma concentrations are linearly related to dose. It is very rapidly absorbed after oral administration but undergoes extensive biotransformation in the gut wall and liver such that
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16(S)-Iloprost (CAS 74843-14-4) | Cayman Chemical
synthesis of Iloprost
Fully Stereocontrolled Total Syntheses of the …
11/08/2009 · PGE 2, PGD 2, the prostacyclin analog iloprost, the thromboxane A 2 analog U-4419, ..
Iloprost ≥98% (HPLC) | Sigma-Aldrich
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Synthesis of intermediate for treprostinil production ..
For the treatment of peripheral vascular disease iloprost has generally been administered intravenously as intermittent infusions of ⩽2 ng/kg/min for 5 to 12 hours for 3 to 6 (Raynaud’s phenomenon) or 14 to 28 (critical leg ischaemia) consecutive days. The optimal total dose is not established. Treatment should be initiated at 0.5 ng/kg/min (possibly lower in patients with severe renal or hepatic dysfunction) and increased in increments of 0.5 ng/kg/min until the appearance of mild headache and flushing. Tapering the rate of administration is recommended prior to discontinuing the drug.
Synthesis of therapeutically useful ..
The incidence of clinically significant hypotension appears to be quite low in patients with peripheral vascular disease treated with intermittent infusions of iloprost ⩽2 ng/kg/min, although symptomatic hypotension has been reported. Intraoperative hypotension, which may be substantial at the dosages used during extracorporeal circulation, responds to phenylephrine and resolves rapidly postoperatively.
TRC | Details of CAS = 74843-14-4, ChemicalName = 16 …
Minor vascular reactions (flushing and headache) are very common during infusion with iloprost (70% incidence). Gastrointestinal reactions, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping and diarrhoea are also common. There is considerable variation in tolerability of iloprost among patients, but adverse effects are dose-related and, within an individual, gastrointestinal distress and hypotension can usually be avoided with careful upward titration of the dose until the appearance of mild headache and flushing. Drug-induced reactions resolve rapidly once iloprost is discontinued.
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PGI2 analogues such as iloprost and treprostinil have been developed in an effort to improve chemical stability, but most of the approved compounds need to be administered by subcutaneous/intravenous infusion or inhalation.
9/30/2004 · Iloprost works by opening ..
Experience with iloprost in myocardial ischaemia and infarction is very limited as yet. Preliminary studies suggest that, during infusion of 2 to 6 ng/kg/min, exercise tolerance is improved in patients with exertional angina — albeit to a variable degree — but that a substantial proportion of patients (10 to 20% of those tested) experience ischaemia at rest, probably due to iloprost-induced coronary ‘steal’. Variant angina (assessed in only 5 patients) did not improve in response to intermittent infusion of the drug.
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