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Menthol - Wikipedia
European information : Most important hazard(s): Xn - Harmful
TRPV3 is a sensitizing receptor (; ), such that upon prolonged or repeated stimulation, currents evoked by chemical or thermal stimuli increase in amplitude. The synthetic TRPV3 agonist, 2-aminoethoxy diphenyl borate (2-APB), which is structurally unrelated to camphor, has been shown to activate significant currents upon first application at concentrations of 100–300μ. In contrast, camphor as a relatively weak agonist, activates sizeable currents only at concentrations of 10m or higher on first exposure. However, after preceding stimulation with higher doses, pronounced currents can already be observed with 2m camphor. Also, camphor's dose dependence is shifted to lower activating concentrations after prestimulating exposures to 2-APB before camphor treatment ().
For the identification and characterization of new TRPV3 agonists, the activity of 33 monoterpenes and related compounds on TRPV3 was compared to that of camphor. Screening was performed by whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of HEK293 cells expressing murine TRPV3. The tested compounds were grouped with respect to structural similarity: Twelve bicyclic monoterpenes were tested, including the known agonist camphor and its biosynthetic precursor (+)-borneol. The monocyclic monoterpenes as the largest group were divided into eight aromatic and nine non-aromatic compounds. In addition, three related cyclic compounds not classified as monoterpenes, among them the sesquiterpene (−)-α-bisabolol as well as two acyclic monoterpenes were tested.
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We therefore examined a number of terpenoid compounds in which different structural elements were systematically varied to identify features required for channel activation. Out of the 33 tested terpenes and related compounds, six agonists significantly stronger than camphor were identified. All of these activate TRPV3 with an EC50 substantially lower than that of camphor and the two most potent ones – 6-tert-butyl-m-cresol and carvacrol, also show a higher potency than the synthetic agonist 2-APB.
To examine TRPV3 activation by these compounds in more detail, dose–response curves were created. This was done in Xenopus oocytes, as TRPV3 is known to show no apparent sensitization in this system (; ), making the comparison of elicited current amplitudes more reliable. Typical recordings are shown in . Camphor activated TRPV3 with an EC50 of about 6m (see ). The synthetic agonist 2-APB was also tested and showed an EC50 of 0.515±0.005m, which is in fair agreement with an EC50 of 1.06m reported by others ().
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Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from corn mint, peppermint, or other mint oils
Menthols | Toxicity | Chemistry
Phenols - Wikipedia
D/L-menthol is produced via reaction of m-cresol with ..
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed
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