(2002), Synthesis of Nucleosides
Ppt on synthesis and degradation of ..
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Thesepurines are salvaged by two enzymes in mammals: The various atoms of the pyrimidine ring are derived as follows: N1,C4,C5,C6 : allderived from Aspartate C2 : from HCO3- N3 : from the Glutamine amidenitrogenThe key molecule in the synthesis of the pyrimidine ribonucleotides isuridine monophosphate (UMP), as it is the final product of the six-stepsynthesis pathway and from which CTP is subsequently derived.
This reciprocity isfundamental to the control of production of both AMP and GMP and their di- andtriphosphates. The basic idea here is that there is exquisite control of the amounts ofpurine nucleotides available for synthesis of nucleic acids, and that thepathways are individually regulated at the cellular level.
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Pathways of mammalian purine nucleotide synthesis. The pathway is shown schematically from the top as well as the central role of IMP in nucleotide interrelations. Salvage of purine bases is catalysed by hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT). Other abbreviations include: ASL, adenylosuccinate lyase; AMPDA, adenylate deaminase; ADA, adenosine deaminase; PNP, purine nucleoside phosphorylase; XO, xanthine oxidase; and PPi, inorganic pyrophosphate.
The 4 purine nucleotides that we have studied are AMP, IMP, XMP and GMP andeach one of these can be degraded to its corresponding nucleoside by the actionof 5'-nucleotidase, which catalyzes cleavage of the phosphate group fromthe 5' C of the ribose.
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A nucleoside diphosphate catalyzes the same kind ofreaction, transferring a Pi from ATP to UDP to form UTP.CTP is synthesized from UTP via an amination reaction catalyzed by CTPsynthetase.
The enzymes in steps 1,2 and 3 are onthe same polypeptide chain, while the last two (reactions 5 and 6) are onanother single chain.Exercise: Calculate the number of ATP equivalents needed to synthesize UMP.Going from UMP to UTP and CTP:A nucleoside monophosphate kinase catalyzes the transfer of a Pifrom ATP to UMP to form UDP.
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Chemical Synthesis of Oligonucleotides
Purine & Pyrimidine Synthesis (de-novo) | easybiologyclass
Nucleosides NH2 N N O NH ..
Nucleic acid metabolism - Wikipedia
Nucleotide Biosynthesis (De-novo & Salvage Synthesis of Purine & Pyrimidine Nucleotides in the Cells)
Nucleic acid metabolism is the process ..
The biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides takes place over synthetic pathways from small molecules and by salvage pathways from preformed purine or pyrimidine bases or nucleosides. The pathways of synthesis are the same in animals and microorganisms. Salvage pathways are considerably more energy‐efficient than pathways, which require 5 (pyrimidine) or 6 (purine) moles of ATP for each mole of nucleotide produced. Salvage pathways are integral to the cause or treatment of a number of human diseases of purine or pyrimidine metabolism. Among disorders of purine metabolism, the Lesch–Nyhan disease is characterised by overproduction of uric acid, clinical gout, nephropathy, neurologic disease, and unusual self‐injurious behaviours.
The synthesis of any pyrimidine nucleotide ..
Also, AMP can be deaminated (loss of an NH4+group) by AMP deaminase to IMP: The nucleosides inosine, xanthosine and guanosine are degraded respectivelyto hypoxanthine, xanthine and guanine and, in the process, the ribose sugar,which was attached by its C1 to the base is phosphorylated: What's really interesting here is that the ribose sugar is recycled in theform of ribose-1-phosphate, which can be incorporated into PRPP which, as we nowknow, is integral to the biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, histidine andtryptophan.
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