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Reduction of palmitic acid yields cetyl alcohol.

T1 - Synthesis of palmitic acid-based esters and their effect on the pour point of palm oil methyl esters

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De Novo synthesis of fatty acids - SlideShare


tasteless, odorless powder that occurs naturally in marble, , coral, eggshells, pearls or oyster shells
odorless white to off-white granules, powder or liquid. Produced in a variety of ways, including treating with , combining with a solution and by concentrating and purifying naturally occurring brines from salt lakes and salt deposits. Has many uses including additive for foods, deicing agent for sidewalks and roads, water treatment.
a synthetic preservative used to prevent crystal formation and to retard color loss. Has caused health problems and is banned in Australia and certain other countries.
also known as slaked lime. Used as acidity regulator in drinks and frozen foods or as a preservative. It's produced commercially by treating lime with water or by mixing and . It's most commonly derived from limestone, but can also derived from seashells.
the calcium salt of
(Monobasic, Dibasic and Tribasic) a mineral salt found in rocks and bones. Used as an anti-caking agent in cosmetics and food, mineral supplement, abrasive in toothpaste and jelling agent. Also known as calcium rock.
mineral calcium with .
the calcium salt of the ester of lactyl lactate. a vegetable wax obtained from candelilla plants.
obtained from sugarcane. In some countries (like the U.S.), cane sugar is often processed through .
shell
used as a coloring. It is manufactured by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis. Possible carbohydrates used are corn, beet sugar, cane sugar, wheat or potatoes. The great majority of caramel is derived from corn and will be vegan. However, some caramel is derived from and not necessarily vegan.


a weak acid formed when carbon dioxide combines with water.
alpha carotene, and gamma-carotene
milk protein
fine wool from the cashmere goat and wild goat of Tibet
Obtained from the anal scent gland of the beaver
A vegetable oil expressed from the castor bean.
enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. It is derived from cattle liver or fungus and used in the food industry
dried and twisted intestines of the sheep or horse
roe of the sturgeon and other fish
the principal component of the fiber of plants. Cellulose is usually obtained from wood pulp or cotton (which contains about 90% cellulose)
found in or synthetic
, can be synthetic

charred bone or wood
organic base of the hard parts of insects and crustacea e.g. shrimps, crabs
soft leather from the skin of the chamois antelope, sheep, goats, deer etc.

a steroid alcohol occurring in all animal fats and oils, nervous tissue, egg yolk and blood.
used in products designed to help alleviate the effects of osteoarthritis. Produced synthetically or derived from the cartilage of cows, pigs, sharks, fish or birds

enzyme primarily derived from ox pancreas.
obtained from cinnamon leaves, coca leaves, balsams like storax or isolated from a wood-rotting fungus. Can be made synthetically.
derived from citrus fruits and since the 1920s commercially produced by fermenting sugar solutions with the microorganism Aspergillus niger. The main raw materials used in the production are corn-derived and molasses.
substance painfully scraped from glands in the anal pouch of the civet cat
thick liquid or semisolid tar obtained from bituminous coal (= soft coal)
red pigment extracted from the crushed carcasses of the female cochineal insect, a cactus-feeding scale insect
oil extracted from the liver of cod and related fish
modified food starch derived from . Used in frozen foods and canned products. Often labeled as 'Food Starch - Modified'
a protein found in most connective tissues, including bone, cartilage and skin. It is usually derived from cows or chickens
a purified protein derived from animal sources. It's produced by breaking down to smaller protein fragments
Can be from plant, animal and synthetic sources. Most and colors are derived from . Coal tar in itself is considered a vegan product. However, coal tar derivatives cause frequent allergic reactions, like skin rashes and hives. It has also shown to cause cancer in animals. For this reason, colors and dyes are continuously tested on animals. That's why and colors and dyes can generally not be considered vegan and I will mark them as on this page.

hard calcareous substance consisting of the continuous skeleton secreted by coelenterate polyps for their support and habitation
derived from dried corn kernels
a form of made from . It is used as a sweetener
steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex and their synthetic analogs.
fixed oil derived from the seeds of the cultivated varieties of the cotton plant

Colorant derived from
amino acid that oxidizes to form
amino acid found in the hair protein keratin

Mixtures of oleic acid with lauric acid, myristic acid, and palmitic acid.

hard animal fat, especially that obtained from the parts about the kidneys of ruminating animals
an organic acid present in many fruits, especially in grapes. Usually obtained as a byproduct of wine making.

a synthetic food preservative used in oils, margarines, crackers, fast foods and many other food products. It's produced from and .
.
male hormone

a colorless liquid hydrocarbon, derived from processing.
(Calcium phosphate, tribasic) The tribasic form of . Also known as calcium orthophosphate. Consists of a mixture of calcium phosphates.
enzyme usually derived from porcine pancreas

De Novo synthesis of fatty acids 1

Palmitic acid is the first fatty acid produced during lipogenesis (fatty acid synthesis) and from which longer fatty acids can be produced.


an artificial sweetener. Also sold commercially as Sunette or Sweet One. It has no nutritional value or calories. Might increase cancer risk in humans.

enzyme derived from kiwi fruit used in the food industry.
comes from the adrenal glands of hogs, cattle and sheep
extracted from seaweeds
a group of simple proteins composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur that are soluble in water. Albumen is usually derived from eggwhites (ovalbumin), but can also be found in plasma (serum albumin), milk (lactalbumin) and vegetables and fruits.
can be extracted from urea (from the urine of most animals, including humans) or from herbs such as comfrey or uva ursi

A compound expressed from the leaf of the aloe plant.
naturally-occurring chemicals derived from fruit or milk
manufactured by dissolving in .
used in the purification of drinking water and in the paper manufacturing industry. Produced by adding to .
morbid concretion obtained from the intestine of the sperm whale
'building blocks' of proteins
fluid surrounding the fetus within the placenta
enzyme derived from either animal (usually porcine pancreas), fungal, bacterial or plant source (barley malt).
small fish of the herring family
fiber obtained from angora rabbits
a vegetable dye from a tropical tree
water-soluble plant pigments
liquid unsaturated fatty acid that can be found in the liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals
product is made by humans from ingredients. Like products, it would not exist without human intervention.
a water-soluble vitamin found in vegetables and fruits or made synthetically
an artificial sweetener known as NutraSweet prepared from and phenylalanine (vegan according to the NutraSweet Company)
Aminosuccinate acid. An amino acid occurring in animals and plants. Usually synthesized from glutamate for commercial purposes.
savory jelly derived from meat and fish
skin of still born or very young lambs from a breed originating in Astrakhan, Russia

We make fatty acids as well as break them down. Fatty acids are synthesized in the cytosol. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis is not just the reverse of fatty acid degradation, although there are some interesting parallels between the two pathways.

Palmitic acid for synthesis, 98.0% | Sigma-Aldrich

T1 - Synthesis of palmitic acid-based esters and their effect on the pour point of palm oil methyl esters

The objectives of this research were to synthesis palmitic acid-based esters and to study their effects on the pour point of palm oil methyl esters. Palmitic acid was esterified with six different branched-chain alcohols, namely 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, 2-methyl-l-butanol, 2-methyl-l-propanol and 2,2-dimethylpropane-l,3-diol. The purified products were characterized by FT-IR, 2H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The effect of the six synthesized palmitic acid-based esters on palm oil methyl esters (biodiesel) was later evaluated. The compounds under study were isopropyl palmitate (1), sec-butyl palmitate (2), 2-ethylhexyl palmitate (3), 2-methylbutyl palmitate (4), isobutyl palmitate (5) and 2,2-dimethylpropane-l,3-diyl daipalmitate (6). All of the synthesized compounds were miscible in palm oil methyl esters due to similar polarity of the solute and the biodiesel. The blends of the resultant six ester compounds in palm oil methyl esters were evaluated respectively for their effect on pour point property. The 2,2-dimethylpropane-l,3-diyl dipalmitate was able to improve the pour point of palm oil methyl esters from 12° to 9° when 5wt% was added.

AB - The objectives of this research were to synthesis palmitic acid-based esters and to study their effects on the pour point of palm oil methyl esters. Palmitic acid was esterified with six different branched-chain alcohols, namely 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, 2-methyl-l-butanol, 2-methyl-l-propanol and 2,2-dimethylpropane-l,3-diol. The purified products were characterized by FT-IR, 2H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The effect of the six synthesized palmitic acid-based esters on palm oil methyl esters (biodiesel) was later evaluated. The compounds under study were isopropyl palmitate (1), sec-butyl palmitate (2), 2-ethylhexyl palmitate (3), 2-methylbutyl palmitate (4), isobutyl palmitate (5) and 2,2-dimethylpropane-l,3-diyl daipalmitate (6). All of the synthesized compounds were miscible in palm oil methyl esters due to similar polarity of the solute and the biodiesel. The blends of the resultant six ester compounds in palm oil methyl esters were evaluated respectively for their effect on pour point property. The 2,2-dimethylpropane-l,3-diyl dipalmitate was able to improve the pour point of palm oil methyl esters from 12° to 9° when 5wt% was added.

The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis is not just the reverse of fatty acid degradation, ..
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  • Start studying Synthesis of Fatty Acids

    Biosynthesis of Palmitic Acid.

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  • Major fatty acid synthesized de novo is palmitic acid ..

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Synthesis of [1,2,3,4,5-13 C 5] palmitic acid

salt or ester of
fatty acid that occurs in palm oil and most other fats and oils
can come from animal, plant or synthetic sources
enzyme derived from the unripe fruit of the papaya plant. It is used for clearing beverages, added to farina to reduce cooking time and used medically to prevent adhesions
the chemical product of the action of or on . To make hard cheese, paracasein is combined with soluble calcium salts to form calcium paracaseinate (cheese curd)
waxy substance obtained from distillates of wood, coal, petroleum, or shale oil
skin of the sheep or goat, dressed and prepared for writing etc
concretion of layers of pain-dulling nacre formed around a foreign particle within the shell of various bivalve molluscs, principally the oyster
a substance that is found in the primary cell walls and the non-woody parts of plants. Pectin is used as a gelling agent, thickener and stabilizer in food. Commercially, pectin is obtained mostly from dried citrus peels and apples as a by-product of juice production.
PEG is the abbreviation of polyethylene glycol or polyoxyethylene glycol. They are polymeric forms of ethylene oxide. They can be either synthetic or derived from animal or vegetable sources.
enzyme usually derived from the stomach of grown calves or sometimes pigs.
an oily, flammable liquid composed of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons occurring in many places in the upper strata of the earth. A fossil fuel believed to have originated from both plant and animal sources millions of years ago.
.
obtained from
an inorganic acid
organ by which the fetus is attached to the umbilical cord
a product of petroleum gas or dehydration of alcohol
produced from and esters
a condensate of with
a condensate of and
a water-soluble polymer from synthetic origin. Used in products like pharmaceutical tablets, shampoo, toothpaste, batteries, paint and adhesives.
a mixture of and ethylene oxide
a mixture of stearate and ethylene oxide produced by a reaction of ethylene oxide with
occurs naturally as the mineral sylvite and is found combined in many minerals and in brines and ocean water.
obtained commercially from the electrolysis of solution
the potassium salt of
sorbic acid potassium salt. Manufactured by neutralisation of with .
sex hormone
bee glue. Used by bees to stop up crevices and fix combs to the hive
flammable gas obtained by cracking .
1,2-propylene glycol; propane-1,2-diol. Manufactured by treating propylene with chlorinated water and treating it with solution or by heating with and distilling the mixture.
a flammable liquid, derived from

Synthesis of Ascorbyl Palmitate with Immobilized …

N2 - The objectives of this research were to synthesis palmitic acid-based esters and to study their effects on the pour point of palm oil methyl esters. Palmitic acid was esterified with six different branched-chain alcohols, namely 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, 2-methyl-l-butanol, 2-methyl-l-propanol and 2,2-dimethylpropane-l,3-diol. The purified products were characterized by FT-IR, 2H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The effect of the six synthesized palmitic acid-based esters on palm oil methyl esters (biodiesel) was later evaluated. The compounds under study were isopropyl palmitate (1), sec-butyl palmitate (2), 2-ethylhexyl palmitate (3), 2-methylbutyl palmitate (4), isobutyl palmitate (5) and 2,2-dimethylpropane-l,3-diyl daipalmitate (6). All of the synthesized compounds were miscible in palm oil methyl esters due to similar polarity of the solute and the biodiesel. The blends of the resultant six ester compounds in palm oil methyl esters were evaluated respectively for their effect on pour point property. The 2,2-dimethylpropane-l,3-diyl dipalmitate was able to improve the pour point of palm oil methyl esters from 12° to 9° when 5wt% was added.

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