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PHOTOFRIN ® PDT causes direct ..

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Barrett's esophagus - Wikipedia

Ross . developed brain cancer-targeted multifunctional polymeric nanoparticles consisting of tumor vascular targeting F3 peptides, photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT), and iron oxide for MRI []. The targeted delivery of photodynamic agents to tumor sites via nanoparticles is one approach to overcoming the disadvantages of prolonged cutaneous photosensitization during PDT. To conjugate targeting peptides onto the nanoparticles specifically, first, amine-functionalized, photofrin and iron oxide-encapsulated polyacrylamide nanoparticles were preparede nanoparticles apsulated consisting of a surface-localized rgeting. , and the water-soluble sulfo-SMCC was added to couple with surface amines on nanoparticles. The reaction mixture was further treated with succinimidyl succinate ester of PEG2000. And the thiol groups of F3 peptides, pretreated with Traut's reagent, were lastly conjugated to the maleimide-functionalized nanoparticles. The targeted nanoparticles performed well during PDT and significantly improved survival rate in a glioma-bearing orthotopic rat model. SMCC may be replaced by heterobifunctional PEG molecules (NHS-PEG-MAL) to functionalize amine-modified nanoparticles. Zhang . used NHS-(PEG)2-MAL and NHS-(PEG)12-MAL to introduce maleimide functionalities onto the magnetic nanoparticles []. A thiol-modified siRNA and CTX were attached to the amine-functionalized pH-sensitive PEI-coated iron oxide nanoparticles via NHS-(PEG)2-MAL and NHS-(PEG)12-MAL, respectively (Figure A). The dodecaethyleneglycol linker for CTX facilitated targeted ligand delivery by providing a more flexible linker, thereby enhancing the peptide's ability to bind to a target receptor. pH-sensitive surface coating layers improved the presentation and availability of cationic CTX on the nanovector surfaces by introducing electrostatic charge repulsion between CTX and surface moieties (Figure B).

Barrett's esophagus refers to an abnormal change in the cells of the lower portion of the esophagus

N2 - Photodynamic therapy is under intense investigation as an adjuvant treatment for malignant glial tumors of the central nervous system. Photofrin-II (HpD-II) is currently the most actively investigated photosensitizing agent. A crucial issue regarding the safe and efficacious usage of HpD-II-based photodynamic therapy is the individual in vivo kinetics of tumor uptake and retention, compared with normal brain clearance. The optimal time for photoactivation of sensitized tumor must be known to ensure a high target-to-nontarget ration, resulting in the maximal tumor destruction while preserving normal brain. Our laboratory developed a radionuclide scan based on 111indium (111In)-labeled HpD-II to evaluate HpD-II localization and clearance noninvasively within a canine model of intracerebral gliosarcoma. Synthesis of the 111In-HpD-II complex in > 90% yield is achieved by a simple, rapid labeling method. Radiochemical purity and stability were verified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Using the canine model of intracerebral gliosarcoma, we followed the uptake of 111In-HpD-II in tumors with serial scintillation scanning. Localization of the tumor by 111In-HpD-II has been verified by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan followed by gross and histological examination of the enhancing brain region. Total body biodistribution of 111In-HpD-II at various times after injection has been evaluated. The ratio of uptake in tumor compared with surrounding brain peaked at 72 hours after injection. The knowledge of regional distribution and concentration of a photosensitizing agent within a tumor mass and surrounding brain allows for the most efficacious timing and localization of a photoactivating source.

Staphylococcus aureus Infections — NEJM

Materials and Methods. Synthesis of Photofrin- and iron oxide–encapsulated nanoparticles. Photofrin-encapsulated or Photofrin- and …

It is suggested that the rapid inhibition of membrane phospholipid synthesis upon cell photosensitization, due to both a direct inactivation of acyltransferases and to a reduction of fatty acid utilization, could play an important role in the photocytotoxic effect of Photofrin II.

It is suggested that the rapid inhibition of membrane phospholipid synthesis upon cell photosensitization, due to both a direct inactivation of acyltransferases and to a reduction of fatty acid utilization, could play an important role in the photocytotoxic effect of Photofrin II.">

Nanoparticles for Radiation Therapy Enhancement: the …

28/05/2009 · Original Article


PDT works by direct injury to the target cells and tissues. While all of the exact mechanisms are not fully known yet, the basic pathway seems to involve an activated oxygen molecule that has the ability to injure or destroy nearby or specific cells.
Aminolevulinic acid is then incorporated into the body’s natural heme ( blood) biosynthesis pathway and activated to form protoporphyrin IX, a potent photosensitier. Protoporphyrin IX then becomes excited to an activated singlet state. This active singlet state is then directly toxic to cells.
Other potential pathways include directly killing abnormal or cancerous cells, damaging the blood vessels and blood supply to the tissue, causing inflammation and irritation, and possibly also activating the person’s own immune system to attack the abnormal or cancerous cells.

AB - Photodynamic therapy is under intense investigation as an adjuvant treatment for malignant glial tumors of the central nervous system. Photofrin-II (HpD-II) is currently the most actively investigated photosensitizing agent. A crucial issue regarding the safe and efficacious usage of HpD-II-based photodynamic therapy is the individual in vivo kinetics of tumor uptake and retention, compared with normal brain clearance. The optimal time for photoactivation of sensitized tumor must be known to ensure a high target-to-nontarget ration, resulting in the maximal tumor destruction while preserving normal brain. Our laboratory developed a radionuclide scan based on 111indium (111In)-labeled HpD-II to evaluate HpD-II localization and clearance noninvasively within a canine model of intracerebral gliosarcoma. Synthesis of the 111In-HpD-II complex in > 90% yield is achieved by a simple, rapid labeling method. Radiochemical purity and stability were verified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Using the canine model of intracerebral gliosarcoma, we followed the uptake of 111In-HpD-II in tumors with serial scintillation scanning. Localization of the tumor by 111In-HpD-II has been verified by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan followed by gross and histological examination of the enhancing brain region. Total body biodistribution of 111In-HpD-II at various times after injection has been evaluated. The ratio of uptake in tumor compared with surrounding brain peaked at 72 hours after injection. The knowledge of regional distribution and concentration of a photosensitizing agent within a tumor mass and surrounding brain allows for the most efficacious timing and localization of a photoactivating source.

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  • How to cite this article: Yu MK, Park J, Jon S

    Skin and Medical Topics

  • Photofrin Porfimersodium MSDS CasNo.87806-31-3

    How to cite this article: Retif P, Pinel S, Toussaint M, Frochot C, Chouikrat R, Bastogne T, Barberi-Heyob M

  • Indium-111-photofrin-II scintillation scan — Mayo Clinic

    Nicholas J

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Photodynamic therapy was done by irradiating Photofrin-preloaded ..

Medarova . synthesized a breast tumor-targeted nanodrug designed to specifically shuttle siRNA to human breast cancer while simultaneously allowing for the noninvasive monitoring of the siRNA delivery process []. The nanodrug consisted of SPIONs for MRI monitoring, Cy5.5 fluorescence dye for near-infrared (IR) optical imaging, and siRNA to target the tumor-specific antiapoptotic gene . Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are extensively used as multimodal imaging probes in combination with optical fluorescence dyes to obtain the benefits of optical imaging, such as rapid screening and high sensitivity. Because tumor-associated underglycosylated mucin-1 (uMUC-1) antigen is overexpressed in >90% of breast cancers and in >50% of all cancers in humans [], researchers have decorated nanodrugs with uMUC-1-targeting EPPT synthetic peptides for selective tumor targeting. As shown in Figure A, amine-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a cross-linked dextran coating (MN) have been prepared, and a Cy5.5 dye was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles to produce MN-Cy5.5. Subsequently, thiol-modified, FITC-labeled EPPT peptides and siRNA were coupled to MN-Cy5.5 via a heterofunctional cross-linker, -succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The resulting therapeutic and diagnostic nanodrug (MN-EPPT-siBIRC5) exhibited superparamagnetic and fluorescence properties. After intravenous injection of the nanodrugs into mice with BT-20 breast tumors, the tumors were clearly imaged, as verified simultaneously by T2 MRI and near-IR optical imaging (Figure B). Systemic administration of the nanodrug once a week over 2 weeks induced considerable levels of necrosis and apoptosis in the tumors as a result of the siBIRC5-mediated inhibition of the antiapoptotic survivin protooncogene, translating into a significant decrease in tumor growth rate (Figure C). This tumor-targeted, imaging-capable nanodrug highlights the potential of MRI-guided tumor treatment, which can be used to quantify changes in the tumor volume over the treatment schedule as well as to guide selection of an optimal treatment time course.

Water soluble, core-modified porphyrins


5-aminolevulinic acid also called Levulan or ALA for short is a naturally occurring protein in the body. It is found in small quantities as part of the normal heme ( blood) synthesis pathway. In larger quantities, it is a substance known to increase sensitivity to certain wavelengths of light.

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