Fomepizole for Ethylene Glycol and Methanol Poisoning …
Diethylene glycol is used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins, polyurethanes and plasticizers.
Synthesis of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) …
It is prepared commercially by oxidation of ethylene at high temperature in the presence of silver oxide catalyst, followed by hydration of ethylene oxide to yield mono-, with di-, tri-, and tetraethylene glycols as co-products. The yields of ethylene glycol are depend on pH conditions.
The third reaction step consists of converting dimethyl oxalate to ethylene glycol (EG) in an excess of H2. Methanol for producing methyl nitrite is also regenerated in this reaction. This is a vapor-phase process in which a proprietary type of copper-zinc chromite is used as a catalyst. Some impurities/by-products such as methyl glycolate, dimethyl carbonate, methyl formate, 1,2-butanediol, etc., are also produced in small amounts. While most of the impurities are removed from the EG without serious difficulties, 1,2-butanediol is likely to pose a problem for producing fiber-grade EG.
Synthesis of Poly(ethylene glycol) Derivatives
N2 - Improved non-viral vector systems are needed for efficient delivery of DNA to target cell nuclei in gene therapy. A series of linear polyamine poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) constructs has been synthesised by reaction of appropriately Boc-protected thermine derivatives with omega-methoxyPEG oxiranylmethyl ethers. Constructs carrying 1-3 MeOPEG units and 0, 2 or 4 N-methyl groups have been prepared by this method. H2N(CH2)3NBoc(CH2)3NBoc(CH2)3NHBoc was prepared efficiently by mono-trifluoroacetylation of thermine, attachment of Boc and removal of the trifluoroacetyl group in one pot. A similar process gave H2N(CH2)3NBoc(CH2)3NBoc(CH2)3NH2. BocMeN(CH2)3NHMe was alkylated by 1,3-dibromopropane to give BocMeN(CH2)3NMe(CH2)3NMe(CH2)3NMeBoc. A cyanoethylation/reduction sequence extended H2N(CH2)3NBoc(CH2)3NBoc(CH2)3NH2 to give H2N(CH2)3NBoc(CH2)3NBoc(CH2)3NBoc(CH2)3NBoc(CH2) 3NH2, which was converted to its mono- and di-MeOPEG550 derivatives. Deprotection gave the linear polyamine MeOPEG constructs. A branched triamine-poly(ethylene glycol) construct was prepared by acylation of (BocHN(CH2)3)2N(CH2)3NH2 with omega-methoxyPEG 550 chloroformate, followed by deprotection. A cyanoethylation/reduction/protection sequence from (H2N(CH2)3)2 N(CH2)3NHBoc gave a protected pentamine. Alkylation with Br(CH2)5CONH(CH2)2NHBoc, deprotection, acylation with MeOPEG chloroformate and deprotection gave a pentamine MeOPEG construct in which the MeOPEG is attached through a linker to the central amine. The linear hexamine construct carrying MeOPEG550 at only one terminus was the most effective DNA-interactive member of the two series in an ethidium displacement assay and was effective in delivering a reporter gene to RIF-1 tumours.
Minor uses of ethylene glycol include the manufacture of capacitors; a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of 1,4-dioxane, and as an additive to prevent corrosion in liquid cooling systems for personal computers. Ethylene glycol is also used in the manufacture of some vaccines. It is used as a minor ingredient in shoe polish and also in some inks and dyes. Ethylene glycol may also be one of the minor ingredients in screen cleaning solutions, along with the main ingredient isopropyl alcohol. Ethylene glycol is commonly used as a preservative for biological specimens, especially in secondary schools during dissection as a safer alternative to formaldehyde.
Synthesis of heterobifunctional polyethylene glycols …
Because of its high boiling point and affinity for water, ethylene glycol is a useful desiccant. Ethylene glycol is widely used to inhibit the formation of natural gas hydrates in long multiphase pipelines that convey natural gas from remote gas fields to an onshore processing facility. Ethylene glycol can be recovered from the natural gas and reused as an inhibitor after purification treatment that removes water and inorganic salts.
In the plastics industry, ethylene glycol is an important precursor to polyester fibers and resins. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) resins used to make plastic bottles for soft drinks is prepared from the reaction of ethylene glycol with terephthalic acid.
-poly(ethylene glycol)-biotin ..
(lactic acid-ethylene glycol) Avidin; Polyethylene Glycols;
T1 - Synthesis and characterisation of polyamine-poly(ethylene glycol) constructs for DNA binding and gene delivery
Synthesis of ETHYLENE GLYCOL DIACETATE - …
This Ethylene Glycol Chemical Engineering Final Year Project report is about Ethylene glycol Chemical
Synthesis description for preparation of ETHYLENE GLYCOL DIACETATE
Synthesis and characterization of adipic acid/polyethylene glycol/poly(ethylene terephthalate) copolyester fiber
Ethylene Glycol Production from CoalBased Synthesis …
TCC’s Ethylene Glycol (MEG) is a toxic, colorless, practically odorless, low-volatility, low-viscosity, hygroscopic liquid. It is completely miscible with water and many organic liquids. The hydroxyl groups on glycols undergo the usual alcohol chemistry, giving a wide variety of possible derivatives. This chemistry permits ethylene glycol to act as an intermediate in a wide range of reactions. Especially significant is resin formation, including the condensation with dimethyl terephthalate or terephthalic acid resulting in a polyester resin (PET) for soft drinks and food packaging.
Ethylene Glycol Production from Coal-Based Synthesis Gas
Polyethylene glycol are mainly used in two kinds of modes: one mode is that PEG are contained in the final products, for example: used in unguent, ointment, lotion, suppository and tablet in pharmaceutical industry; used in toothpaste, hair cream, deodorant, cleaning cream in cosmetic industry; used in press-polished paper in paper making industry; and used in nylon fibre, celluloid film, adhesive, detergent, flux, varnish and photographic developer, etc. Another mode is that PEG provide lubricating property for many kinds of products, for example: used as shaping lubricant for metals, ceramic tile and porcelain products; used as lubricant in silking, textile fibre, tyre manufacture and medical surgical suture; used as demoulding agent in the formation of latex foam.
PEG200: used as the medium and heat carrier in organic synthesis; as humectant, solubilizer of inorganic salts and viscosity regulator in daily chemical industry; as softening agent and antistatic agent in textile industry, and as wetting agent in paper making and pesticide industry.
PEG400, 600: used as the substrate in medicine and cosmetic; as lubricant and wetting agent in rubber and textile industry. PEG600 is used as wetting agent in wood industry, to improve grinding effect and strengthen the lustre of metal surface when used in electrolyte in metal process.
PEG1000-1500: used as substrate, lubricant and softening agent in pharmaceutical, textile and cosmetic industry; as dispersant to perfect the water dispersibility and flexility of resin in coating industry (the use level is 10-30%); to improve the solvability of dyes and reduce the volatility in ink; also used in stencil paper and stamp pad ink; as well as used in ball pen ink to regulate the viscosity of ink and as dispersant in rubber industry.
PEG2000-3000: used as film-casting agent in metal process; as lubricant and cutting solution in metal wiredrawing, impact extrusion or moulding; as cooling polishing agent and solder; as lubricant in paper making industry.
PEG4000-6000: used as substrate in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry to regulate the viscosity and melting point; as lubricant and coolant in rubber and metal process industry; as dispersant and emulsifier in pesticide and pigment industry; and as antistatic agent and lubricant in textile industry.
Synthesis and characterization of the Poly(ethylene glycol) ..
Properties and Uses:
Polyethylene glycol series products are usually soluble in the water and many kinds of organic solvents, insoluble in the fatty hydrocarbon, benzene and glycol. They don't hydrolyze and deteriorate in quality, and have wide solubility range and excellent compatibility, excellent stability, lubricating property, film-forming property, plasticity and dispersion. They are nonionic polymer with low toxicity and no pungency.
Polyethylene glycol have excellent properties and their molecular weight is adjustable, therefore, they are widely used in many fields such as plastic, rubber, pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, coating, ink, adhesive, paper making, textile, oil exploration and the process of metal, wood, leather and ceramics, photographic and packing material, etc.
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