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178.3740 Plasticizers in polymeric substances.

175.105 Adhesives.Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings

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For English translation, see HYSAAV.

The exponential increase in the use of plastic demands that biosourced and biodegradable polymers such as poly(-lactide)s (PLLA)s be considered to replace some petroleum based polymers in a range of applications. In order to produce PLLA in the greenest manner, i.e. by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of -lactide using an organocatalyst in solvent free conditions at high temperature (in bulk) has proven to be a significant challenge. Indeed, the high required temperature (180 °C) has led to poorly controlled polymerizations as a result of transesterification reactions of the PLLA backbone, racemization of the lactide monomers as well as the degradation and thus deactivation of the organocatalyst. We report herein the efforts made over the past 20 years in order to conduct the ROP of -lactide in bulk by using organic molecules and the problems encountered by the scientific community in addressing this challenge to date.

177.1680 Polyurethane resins.Subpart D--Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids
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intravenous-dog LDLo 20 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

73, 1981.intraperitoneal-rat LD50 230 uL/kgUnion Carbide Data Sheet.

7/23/1970intraperitoneal-rat LD50 460 uL/kgUnion Carbide Data Sheet.
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293, 1951.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 3600 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


intravenous-rat LD50 710 mg/kg
AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine.

448, 1951.intravenous-rat LD50 100 uL/kgUnion Carbide Data Sheet.

7/23/1970intravenous-rat LD50 200 uL/kgUnion Carbide Data Sheet.
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Kathryn E. Uhrich was born in Aberdeen, SD, in 1965. She received a B.S. degree in Chemistry from the University of North Dakota (1986) and M.S. (1989) and Ph.D. (1992) degrees from Cornell University. She held post-doctoral positions at AT&T Bell Laboratories and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1993−1995), before moving to her present post as Assistant Professor of Chemistry at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Trained in organic and polymer synthesis, her research interests have included linear and dendritic polymers, photoresists, and biomaterials for bone replacement. Her current research activities are in the design, synthesis, and characterization of novel, organic polymers that have medical relevance.

Citation data is made available by participants in Cited-by Linking service. For a more comprehensive list of citations to this article, users are encouraged to perform a search in.

448, 1951.oral-rat LD50 35600 uL/kgUnion Carbide Data Sheet.
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  • 3/28/1969oral-rat LD50 2000 mg/kgAcute Toxicity Data.


  • Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B.

    103, Pg.

  • 15(Supploral-rat LD50 2150 mg/kgUnion Carbide Data Sheet.

    46(6), Pg.

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7/23/1970oral-rat LD50 2410 mg/kgUnion Carbide Data Sheet.

Kevin Shakesheff was born in Ashington, Northumberland, U.K., in 1969. He received his Bacheclor of Pharmacy degree from the University of Nottingham in 1991 and a Ph.D. from the same institution in 1995. In 1996 he became a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow at MIT, Department of Chemical Engineering. He is currently an EPSRC Advanced Fellow at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Nottingham. His research group investigates new methods of engineering polymer surfaces and the application of these engineered materials in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

1413, 1986.oral-rat LD50 9760 mg/kgUnion Carbide Data Sheet.

Robert Langer is the Kenneth J. Germeshausen Professor of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering at MIT. He received his B.S. degree from Cornell University in 1970, a Sc.D. from MIT in 1974, both in chemical engineering, and honorary doctorates from ETH (Switzerland) in 1996 and Technion (Israel) in 1997. He has written over 600 articles, 400 abstracts, and 360 patents, and edited 12 books. He has also received over 80 major awards including the Gairdner Foundation International Award, Lemelson-MIT prize, ACS's Applied Polymer Science and Polymer Chemistry Awards, AICHE's Professional Progress, Bioengineering, Walker and Stine Materials Science and Engineering Awards. In 1989, Dr. Langer was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and in 1992 he was elected to both the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences. He is the only active member of all three National Academies.

5/19/1960oral-rat LD50 10334 mg/kgDow Chemical Company Reports.

Citation data is made available by participants in Cited-by Linking service. For a more comprehensive list of citations to this article, users are encouraged to perform a search in.

MSD-395skin-rabbit LD50 20 mL/kgUnion Carbide Data Sheet.

Scott M. Cannizzaro was born in Schenectady, NY (1967). He earned his B.S. degree in Chemistry from Sienna College (1990) and his Ph.D. degree from Duke University in Organic Chemistry (1995). He trained in drug delivery and tissue engineering as a NIH Fellow at MIT (1995−1997). While at MIT he had a winning entry in the 50K Business Plan Competition, a nationally recognized entrepreneurial award. He then joined Arthur D. Little, a technical consulting firm, as a manager in the Technology Products & Development group. While at ADL, he advised clients on medical devices and drug delivery systems. He also managed internal research efforts for the development of novel biomaterials. Recently, Dr. Cannizzaro has joined Surface-Logix (Boston, MA), a company based on microfabrication from soft lithography. He will be responsible for the company's efforts in polymers and biomaterials.

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