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Synthesising proteins from non-natural building blocks?

T1 - Inhibitors of protein synthesis also inhibit lysosomal proteolysis. Studies using cystinotic fibroblasts

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Synthesising proteins from non-natural building blocks

RelA/SpoT Homologue (RSH) proteins comprise a superfamily of enzymes that synthesise and/or hydrolyse the nucleotide alarmone ppGpp, mediator of the ‘stringent’ response and regulator of cellular metabolism in response to changing environmental conditions. Most of what we know about RSHs comes from the proteins RelA and SpoT, paralogues that appear to have evolved from duplication of an ancestral Rel gene in the lineage to β- and γ-proteobacteria. Recently, more details have come to light on the evolution of the RSH superfamily, revealing that there is a much greater diversity of RSHs than previously thought.

Effects of testosterone on qualitative pattern of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.

N2 - Cystine depleted cystinotic fibroblasts incubated in cystine-free medium accumulate lysosomal-free cystine from the degradation of cystine-containing intracellular and extracellular proteins. In this report we have used this characteristic of these cells to study lysosomal proteolysis. We find that inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide, emetine, and puromycin) inhibit cystine accumulation from endogenous proteins and therefore act to inhibit lysosomal proteolysis of these proteins. However, cycloheximide does not inhibit cystine accumulation derived from the degradation of the extracellular disulfide-rich proteins, albumin and RNase, but lysosomal cystine accumulation derived from insulin is inhibited by cycloheximide. We conclude that a rapidly turning over protein may be required for the lysosomal degradation of intracellular and some extracellular proteins.

Maximum precision in protein synthesis September 8, 2017, ..

thus ensuring maximum efficiency and precision in synthesising functional proteins.

Cystine depleted cystinotic fibroblasts incubated in cystine-free medium accumulate lysosomal-free cystine from the degradation of cystine-containing intracellular and extracellular proteins. In this report we have used this characteristic of these cells to study lysosomal proteolysis. We find that inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide, emetine, and puromycin) inhibit cystine accumulation from endogenous proteins and therefore act to inhibit lysosomal proteolysis of these proteins. However, cycloheximide does not inhibit cystine accumulation derived from the degradation of the extracellular disulfide-rich proteins, albumin and RNase, but lysosomal cystine accumulation derived from insulin is inhibited by cycloheximide. We conclude that a rapidly turning over protein may be required for the lysosomal degradation of intracellular and some extracellular proteins.

AB - Cystine depleted cystinotic fibroblasts incubated in cystine-free medium accumulate lysosomal-free cystine from the degradation of cystine-containing intracellular and extracellular proteins. In this report we have used this characteristic of these cells to study lysosomal proteolysis. We find that inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide, emetine, and puromycin) inhibit cystine accumulation from endogenous proteins and therefore act to inhibit lysosomal proteolysis of these proteins. However, cycloheximide does not inhibit cystine accumulation derived from the degradation of the extracellular disulfide-rich proteins, albumin and RNase, but lysosomal cystine accumulation derived from insulin is inhibited by cycloheximide. We conclude that a rapidly turning over protein may be required for the lysosomal degradation of intracellular and some extracellular proteins.

SparkNotes: SAT Subject Test: Biology: Protein Synthesis

Now that we’ve described DNA and RNA, it’s time to take a look at the process of protein synthesis

Protein synthesis is the process in which cells build proteins
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