On the Synthesis of Taurine - American Chemical Society
It is part of the chemical structure of the amino acids glutathione, taurine, cysteine, and methionine.
Taurine For Synthesis MSDS - Exporter Lab Chemicals
Methionine plays a role in the biosynthesis of cysteine, carnitine, and taurine (by the transsulfuration pathway), lecithin production, the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, and other phospholipids.
Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, retina, muscle tissue, and organs throughout the body. Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. All ocular tissues contain taurine, and quantitative analysis of ocular tissue extracts of the rat eye revealed that taurine was the most abundant amino acid in the retina, vitreous, lens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. In the retina, taurine is critical for photoreceptor development and acts as a cytoprotectant against stress-related neuronal damage and other pathological conditions. Despite its many functional properties, however, the cellular and biochemical mechanisms mediating the actions of taurine are not fully known. Nevertheless, considering its broad distribution, its many cytoprotective attributes, and its functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body. Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. In this report, we present a broad overview of the functional properties of taurine, some of the consequences of taurine deficiency, and the results of studies in animal models suggesting that taurine may play a therapeutic role in the management of epilepsy and diabetes.
Synthesis and biosynthesis Synthesis
There is obviously a broad array of mechanisms by which taurine serves its cytoprotective role, but the molecular identity of a taurine-selective receptor remains a mystery. Several studies have implicated a metabotropic GABAB-binding site as mediating the action of taurine, particularly in the brain regions of the mouse and rat [,], as well as in the mammalian retina . However, the pathway linking the GABAB receptor to its physiologic action has yet to be identified, and there is a high level of uncertainty regarding the existence or nature of a taurine-specific receptor (see below).
All of these are well documented responses to caffeine intake and underpin some of the numerous physiological changes that boost physical performance.
Taurine synthesis in the brain is physiologically very important, ..
N2 - Taurine-containing water-soluble peptidomimetics were designed and synthesized. N-terminal taurine acylations allowed synthesis of a number of taurine-containing peptides. N-protection of taurine with Cbz and SO 2-activation with benzotriazole followed by coupling with various amino esters, dipeptides and nucleophiles provided taurine N- and O-conjugates and sulfonopeptides.
AB - Taurine-containing water-soluble peptidomimetics were designed and synthesized. N-terminal taurine acylations allowed synthesis of a number of taurine-containing peptides. N-protection of taurine with Cbz and SO 2-activation with benzotriazole followed by coupling with various amino esters, dipeptides and nucleophiles provided taurine N- and O-conjugates and sulfonopeptides.
Taurine MSDS, Taurine Materials Safety Data Sheet
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Taurine can be produced by the body (through biosynthesis) or produced as a man made chemical (through chemical …
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27/01/2017 · The influence of taurine on acetylcholine content and synthesis in rat brain
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This mode of action has been described by Schaffer and coworkers  in cases of diabetes. They find that in this condition, there occurs a decline in the levels of endogenous taurine, and suggest that this taurine deficiency reduces the expression of the respiratory chain components required for normal translation of mitochondrial-encoded proteins. They propose that the dysfunctional respiratory chain accumulates electron donors, thereby diverting electrons from the respiratory chain to oxygen, and forming superoxide anion in the process. Increasing taurine levels restores respiratory chain activity and increases the synthesis of ATP at the expense of superoxide anion production.
Compound - definition of compound by The Free …
Abstract:Sodium N-lauroyl-N-methyl taurine was synthesized by one step direct condensation lauric acid with sodium N-methyl taurineas the main starting materials. The effects ofreaction temperature, reaction time,catalyst type and dosage, molar ratio of starting materials and solvent dosage on the reactionwere investigated. Results showed thatthe optimal processis: molarratio of lauric acid to sodium N-methyl taurine1.3︰1; boric acid as the catalyst with dosage of 2% of lauric acid mass; dosage of solvent 40% of lauric acid mass; reaction time 6 h at 215 ℃. Over 95%conversion of sodium N-methyl taurineis achieved under the optimal process. Purity of product achieves more than 98% after recrystallization and drying operation of the crude product.
Sperm-Hybrid Micromotor for Targeted Drug Delivery - …
A sperm-driven micromotor is presented as a targeted drug delivery system, which is appealing to potentially treat diseases in the female reproductive tract. This system is demonstrated to be an efficient drug delivery vehicle by first loading a motile sperm cell with an anticancer drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride), guiding it magnetically, to an cultured tumor spheroid, and finally freeing the sperm cell to deliver the drug locally. The sperm release mechanism is designed to liberate the sperm when the biohybrid micromotor hits the tumor walls, allowing it to swim into the tumor and deliver the drug through the sperm–cancer cell membrane fusion. In our experiments, the sperm cells exhibited a high drug encapsulation capability and drug carrying stability, conveniently minimizing toxic side effects and unwanted drug accumulation in healthy tissues. Overall, sperm cells are excellent candidates to operate in physiological environments, as they neither express pathogenic proteins nor proliferate to form undesirable colonies, unlike other cells or microorganisms. This sperm-hybrid micromotor is a biocompatible platform with potential application in gynecological healthcare, treating or detecting cancer or other diseases in the female reproductive system.
Studies on Synthesis of Taurine from Ethanolamine - …
Perhaps the most enigmatic question regarding taurine is whether it is a neurotransmitter. The structural resemblance between γ-aminobutyric acid and taurine, the similar distributions of these amino acids and their synthesizing enzymes in various regions of the brain, and the evidence that taurine, when applied to CNS neurons, exerts an inhibitory effect on their firing rate  have all contributed to the view that taurine is indeed a neurotransmitter. Adding to this is the fact that there is a rapid calcium-dependent efflux of taurine after electrical stimulation of cortical slices of rat brain, and the presence of uptake mechanisms to terminate its action [-]. Nevertheless, the issue is far from resolved, and the effects of taurine on the responses of retinal neurons have served to highlight some of the difficulties.
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