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organic acid biosynthetic process

cellular biosynthetic processis_a:

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J., Hussey, H., and Baddiley, J., 1971, Shared lipid phosphate carrier in the biosynthesis of teichoic acid and peptidoglycan, Nature (London) New Biol.

organic substance biosynthetic process

sent in the organism. Teichuronic acid is a copolymer comprising of alternate glucuronic acid and glutamate/ N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid. Genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis such as mraY, murC-murG, ftsL, ddlA, cwlA and glnA were also observed to be present in the B. nealsonii AAU1 genome. Nine sequences encoding the enzymes related to diaminopimelate biosynthesis were also found to be present in the genome as well as genes coding for teichoic and lipoteichoic acid biosynthesis (details shown in full in ).

coenzyme M biosynthetic process

teichoic acid biosynthetic process (6)

Teichoic acid polymers are linked to bacterial peptidoglycans via a disaccharide bridge that is made of -acetylmannosamine linked to -acetylglucosamine (Figure ) . Although the polymers themselves can be modified with alanine or glucose and be made from glycerol phosphate and ribitol phosphate monomers, the disaccharide bridge is highly conserved. This bridge is biosynthesized by the enzyme TagA from UDP--acetylmannosamine and undecaprenyl-diphospho--acetylglucosamine building blocks. TagB then forms a dimer or trimer of glycerol phosphate ester bonds attached to the mannosamine core before the polymer chain is extended by Tag F using CDP-glycerol made by TagD; the polymer can also then be modified by additional proteins that add glucose or alanine, for example . The final cell wall structures trade the lipid-linked disaccharide core for peptidoglycan (Figure ). Originally, teichoic acid polymers were thought to be dispensable and therefore not a viable antibiotic target. However, recently these polymers have been shown to be crucial for the survival of , a model Gram-positive organism, even under phosphate-limiting conditions in which bacteria can switch to synthesizing phosphate-free anionic teichuronic acid polymers .

The biochemical functions of the enzymes involved in WTA biosynthesis have not been verified previously because of a lack of availability of the complex substrates. The 55 carbon long “carrier” lipid attached to many of the cell wall precursor substrates make substrate isolation and kinetic studies of this system particularly challenging. To circumvent this difficulty, a C13H27 hydrocarbon chain analogue was made by chemical synthesis and shown to be a substrate for the first enzyme, TagA, in the biosynthetic pathway. TagA forms a ß-1,4--acetylmannosamine anomeric bond—one of the most problematic glycosidic linkages to make by chemical means alone. Both the first enzyme and the second enzyme in the pathway, TagB, are able to accept a substrate containing the shorter lipid. These studies demonstrate that long lipid chains are not necessary for the enzymatic reactions and, in addition, even a membrane interface is not crucial for the activity of TagA and TagB. These exciting discoveries suddenly make structural and molecular studies of these crucial WTA biosynthesis enzymes less daunting.

alkanesulfonate biosynthetic process (1)

teichuronic acid biosynthetic process

Teichoic acids are unique to gram positive bacteria. The peptidoglycan composition predicted by the annotation analysis was similar to that described previously for other Bacillus species. such as the neutrophilic B. subtilis, including many acidic components along with genes coding for peptidoglycan components. The glycosyl transferase cluster (seven genes tuaA-tuaH related to teichuronic acid biosynthesis) were observed to be pre-

Out of the total 95 substrates present in the AN-Biolog plate, 38 were metabolized. Twelve substrate types were not metabolized (aromatic chemicals, carboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acid and ether) while none of the amino sugars and sugar alcohols provided among a panel of ten carbohydrate types were utilized. The B. nealsonii AAU1 strain was found to utilize high numbers of hexoses and amino acids. The substrates utilized included 0/3 amino sugars, 1/2 pentoses, 1/1 ketose, 1/2 deoxysugars, 0/6 sugar alcohols, 3/6 monosaccharides, 2/6 disaccharides, 4/11 oligosaccharides, 3/5 glycosides, 1/1 uronic acid, 10/20 amino acids, 0/2 aromatic chemicals, 0/1 carboxylic acid, 6/15 organic acids, 0/3 dicarboxylic acids, 1/2 esters, 0/1 antibiotic, 1/1 ribonucleotide, 2/3 nucleotides, 0/1 ether and 1/2 lipids ().

small molecule biosynthetic process
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  • The role of lipoteichoic acid biosynthesis in membrane ..

    cellular biosynthetic process

  • Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides (With Diagram)

    1969 Control of teichoic acid and teichuronic acid biosynthesis in chemostat cultures of Bacillus subtilis var niger.

  • Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides (With ..

    R., 1974, The structure, biosynthesis and function of teichoic acids, Adv.

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will discuss about the biosynthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides

The incorporation of characteristic carbohydrate-based polymers into the cell wall is a general trait of most Gram-positive bacteria. These cell wall glycopolymers (CWGs) are attached to the membrane or the peptidoglycan and enclose, for example, the teichoic acids, which belong to the most prevalent types of CWG. The structure, function, and biosynthesis of CWGs are only superficially understood. CWG composition and structure is highly variable and often strain- and species-specific. Recent studies have yielded a more precise picture of the biosynthetic pathway for the wall teichoic acid (WTA) polymers, which are covalently anchored in the cell wall, and the lipoteichoic acid (LTA) polymers, which are attached to the cell membrane of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Some Gram-positive bacteria have other CWGs, aside from WTA and LTA, such as polyanionic teichuronic acids or uncharged lipoglycans. CWGs are important in bacterial physiology and various potential functions such as the control of autolytic enzymes, regulation of divalent cations, attachment of surface proteins, or protection against antibacterial molecules have been described. For those bacteria that colonize or infect the host organism, certain CWGs have been implicated in the adherence to host cells and the activation of the immune responses, for example through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Additionally, CWGs are important targets for vaccines, antimicrobials and diagnostics. Thus CWGs represent an important field for scientific research.

tuaH) involved in teichuronic acid biosynthesis was repressed in ..

Spirulina (Arthrospira), an edible cyanobacterium, is globally considered as a valuable source of food supplement (Lee 1997, Li and Qi 1997) as it contains some compounds like essential fatty- and amino acids, antioxidants vitamins and minerals, at relatively high concentrations (Richmond et al.

Synonyms: UDP-xylose biosynthesis, ..

The incorporation of characteristic carbohydrate-based polymers into the cell wall is a general trait of most Gram-positive bacteria. These cell wall glycopolymers (CWGs) are attached to the membrane or the peptidoglycan and enclose, for example, the teichoic acids, which belong to the most prevalent types of CWG. The structure, function, and biosynthesis of CWGs are only superficially understood. CWG composition and structure is highly variable and often strain- and species-specific. Recent studies have yielded a more precise picture of the biosynthetic pathway for the wall teichoic acid (WTA) polymers, which are covalently anchored in the cell wall, and the lipoteichoic acid (LTA) polymers, which are attached to the cell membrane of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Some Gram-positive bacteria have other CWGs, aside from WTA and LTA, such as polyanionic teichuronic acids or uncharged lipoglycans. CWGs are important in bacterial physiology and various potential functions such as the control of autolytic enzymes, regulation of divalent cations, attachment of surface proteins, or protection against antibacterial molecules have been described. For those bacteria that colonize or infect the host organism, certain CWGs have been implicated in the adherence to host cells and the activation of the immune responses, for example through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Additionally, CWGs are important targets for vaccines, antimicrobials and diagnostics. Thus CWGs represent an important field for scientific research.

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