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The Endosymbiotic Hypothesis - endosymbiont …

The endosymbiont hypothesis suggests that the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells are descended from captured

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The Endosymbiotic Hypothesis - endosymbiont hypothesis


In the 1970s scientists developed new tools and methods for comparing genes from different species. Two teams of microbiologists — one headed by Carl Woese, and the other by W. Ford Doolittle at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia — studied the genes inside chloroplasts of some species of algae. They found that the chloroplast genes bore little resemblance to the genes in the algae's nuclei. Chloroplast DNA, it turns out, was cyanobacterial DNA. The DNA in mitochondria, meanwhile, resembles that within a group of bacteria that includes the type of bacteria that causes typhus (see photos, right). Margulis has maintained that earlier symbioses helped to build nucleated cells. For example, spiral-shaped bacteria called spirochetes were incorporated into all organisms that divide by mitosis. Tails on cells such as sperm eventually resulted. Most researchers remain skeptical about this claim.

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This study examines the hypothesis that the exotic Armadillidium vulgare and native Mongoloniscus koreanus differ in their life histories and soil water content preferences. It also discusses how these differences could have facilitated their coexistence.

Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, ..

Extranuclear Inheritance
Both mitochondria and chloroplast genes are located in cytoplasm, therefore they are extranuclear genetic materials. They have distinct inheritance pattern as compared to Mendelian inheritance. Usually they show maternal effect: the offsprings inherit the trait from their mother.

Origin of mitochondria and chloroplast –endosymbiont hypothesis
Mitochondria and chloroplast were free-living prokaryotes. These organisms invaded primitive eukaryotes and established symbiotic relationship. The evidence aree listed below: MtDNA and cpDNA are cicular, similar to bacteria, they have similar ribosomes with bacteria; they are similar in size; and they all have similar double membranes.

In cell: The endosymbiont hypothesis …in an energy-requiring process

RNA editing
This is a feature unique to mitochondria and chloroplasts. RNA editing means post-transcriptional modification of the primary sequence of RNA through nucleotide deletion, insertion, or base modification.

Both mitochodnria and chloroplasts have their own genetic material, which are circular double stranded DNA. They exist in nucleoid regions within the organelles, usually multiple copies, encode rRNA and some proteins for the organelle function. For both organelles, the transcription and translation pattern are similar to prokaryotes, therefore it is hypothesized that these organelles have a symbiont origin.

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  • History: The Formation of the Endosymbiotic Hypothesis

    Hatena arenicola, a species that appears to be in the process of acquiring an endosymbiont; Hydrogen hypothesis;

  • The Endosymbiotic Theory is no different

    Phylogenetic analyses based on genetic sequences support the endosymbiosis …

  • Endosymbiosis - The Appearance of the Eukaryotes

    Define endosymbiosis: symbiosis in which a symbiont dwells within the body of its symbiotic partner

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Endosymbiont Hypothesis Flashcards | Quizlet

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Endosymbiont hypothesis - WikiVisually

This site aims to offer an autogenic explanation for the origin of mitochondria, in the sense that the mitochondrial system evolved from existing eukaryotic endomembrane components. This in contrast to the endosymbiotic theory that assumes that mitochondria originated from bacteria that took residence in an unidentified other cell and became enslaved by an unknown mechanism. You can read my critique on the endosymbiotic theory . The alternative ‘eukaryotic origin for mitochondria’ presents a gradualistic scenario where small genetic changes to the existing endomembrane system lead to generation of a more-or-less independent organelle. Driving forces for such a scenario would be the advantages that a compartmentalization of metabolic function into specialized organelles offers to flexibity and robustness of the cell.

Endosymbiosis and The Origin of Eukaryotes - Biology …

I will try to base my research on the origin of mitochondria based on a model that sees evolution as an expanding system of functional modules that communicate through strictly defined interfaces. In such a system that grows by functional extensions, existing interfaces cannot be changed anymore because of the dependencies of downstream functions on this interface. By analyzing the functional modules, their conserved interfaces and its dependants, it then becomes possible to determine the logical sequence of events that occurred in evolution. I will look specifically to genetic control, protein import mechanisms, metabolic function and its relation with the cell cycle. I believe that these subsystems that are involved in the origin of mitochondria point to a eukaryotic origin as a functional extension of the endomembrane system.

Endosymbiosis | Article about endosymbiosis by The …

Organelles have their own DNA, anddivide independently of the cell they live in: WhenMargulis initially proposed the Symbiotic Theory, she predictedthat, if the organelles were really bacterial (prokaryotic)symbionts, they would have their own DNA.

Lynn Margulis and the endosymbiont hypothesis: 50 …

I will incorporate the evolution of the subsystems in a complete gradual scenario for the origin of mitochondria. I will focus on the gradual specialization of the endomembrane system leading to increasingly complex organelles. Diversification of an existing protein targeting to the ER, could lead to specialized ER-derived compartments such as mitosomes and hydrogenosomes and in a seperate line from the ER, the mitochondria. The specific extra functionality that is gained in each step will be related to metabolic activity based on core functionality of an ATP synthase driven by a proton gradient. The presence of introns in some genes suggest an origin from the nuclear genome, although lateral gene transfer using a plasmid or viral vector cannot be excluded. All the intermediates can be found in the organelles of amitochondriate organisms and in mitochondrial genomes without (e.g. Cryptosporidium) or with a very small genome (e.g. Amphidinium).

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