All Things Lighting | Relevance in Illumination Engineering
Looking Beyond Light Recipes Ian Ashdown, P
Eng, FIES Senior Scientist, Lighting Analysts Inc
In respiration energy is released fromsugars when electrons associated with hydrogen are transported to oxygen (theelectron acceptor), and water is formed as a byproduct. The mitochondriause the energy released in this oxidation in order to synthesize ATP. Inphotosynthesis, the electron flow is reversed, the water is split (not formed),and the electrons are transferred from the water to CO2 and in theprocess the energy is used to reduce the CO2 into sugar. Inrespiration the energy yield is 686 kcal per mole of glucose oxidized to CO2,while photosynthesis requires 686 kcal of energy to boost the electrons from thewater to their high-energy perches in the reduced sugar -- light provides thisenergy.
Utilization of CO2 for production of energy-rich carbon compounds using solar light as an energy source has been a very attractive research field because it can solve serious global problems, i.e., energy crisis, depletion of carbon resources, and global warming. Exhaust gases discharged from heavy industries include relatively low concentrations of CO2. As a typical example, exhaust gas from fire power plants includes only 3%–13% CO2 with N2 as the main component; however, most research on photochemical and electrochemical reduction of CO2 have been conducted using pure CO2 to achieve high reaction rates of the active reaction intermediates with CO2. This is problematic because condensation of CO2, achieved by adsorption and desorption processes with amines and MOFs or separation with filters, is a highly energy-consuming process. If low concentrations of CO2 can be directly utilized, a highly promising technology can be developed. To the best of our knowledge, there has been only one report of a visible-light driven photocatalytic reduction system for low concentrations of CO2, of which catalyst was integrated into MOF as CO2 adsorption active sites. Although the MOF system could reduce even 5% concentration of CO2 with about 1.3 times higher efficiency compared to that of the corresponding homogeneous system without MOF, its photocatalysis is not satisfactory because of low durability (TONHCOOH = 33.3) and low selectivity of CO2 reduction (71% with H2 evolution; TONH2 = 14.5). In natural photosynthesis, plants have acquired elaborate systems during the evolutionary process to solve the above-mentioned problem, i.e., the Hatch–Slack cycle for concentration of CO2 and the Calvin cycle for CO2 reductive fixation. A novel photocatalytic system with a different working principle for CO2 condensation is required for the development of artificial photosynthesis research.
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The energy released by burning fuel or digesting food was once energy from the sun that was captured by plants in the chemical process that forms plant matter (from air and water). (Boundary: The fact that plants capture energy from sunlight is introduced at this grade level, but details of photosynthesis are not.)
. The chemical reaction by which plants produce complex food molecules (sugars) requires an energy input (i.e., from sunlight) to occur. In this reaction, carbon dioxide and water combine to form carbon-based organic molecules and release oxygen. (Boundary: Further details of the photosynthesis process are not taught at this grade level.)
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In ordinary language, people speak of “producing” or “using” energy. This refers to the fact that energy in concentrated form is useful for generating electricity, moving or heating objects, and producing light, whereas diffuse energy in the environment is not readily captured for practical use. Therefore, to produce energy typically means to convert some stored energy into a desired form—for example, the stored energy of water behind a dam is released as the water flows downhill and drives a turbine generator to produce electricity, which is then delivered to users through distribution systems. Food, fuel, and batteries are especially convenient energy resources because they can be moved from place to place to provide processes that release energy where needed. A system does not destroy energy when carrying out any process. However, the process cannot occur without energy being available. The energy is also not destroyed by the end of the process. Most often some or all of it has been transferred to heat the surrounding environment; in the same sense that paper is not destroyed when it is written on, it still exists but is not readily available for further use.
Horticultural lighting presents interesting opportunities for professional lighting designers. It is a rapidly developing field where the use of blue and red LEDs for optimal photosynthesis is only the beginning. Solid state lighting has energized horticultural research into plant responses to light sources with different spectral power distributions, and there will surely be discoveries that improve our understanding of both photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis, as well as improvements in horticultural lighting design.
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For now, horticulturalists will continue to measure PAR as photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) with a quantum sensor, and measure or calculate daily light integrals (integrated daily PPFD). However, ANSI/ASABE S640 is important in that it provides a framework with which to quantify forthcoming light recipes for optimal growth and health of urban agriculture crops.
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What we perceive as visible light spans the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths from 400 nm (deep blue) to 700 nm (deep red). Coincidentally, this is the same range over which plant photosynthesis occurs. Outside of this range, plants respond to ultraviolet and far-red radiation. The Pfr isoform of phytochrome, for example, has a peak spectral absorptance of 735 nm, and is responsible for initiating many photomorphogenetic functions. Similarly, the photopigment UVR8 is responsible for sensing excess UV-B radiation (280 nm – 315 nm) and initiating plant stress responses to prevent DNA damage. With this, the metrics are therefore divided into three spectral ranges: ultraviolet (280 nm – 400 m), photosynthetic (400 nm – 700 nm), and far-red (700 nm – 800 nm).
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This article is not, however, about Radiance and its derivatives; it is about climate-based daylight modeling. More particularly, it is about a unique radiosity-based approach to CBDM calculations that does not involve the Radiance daylight calculation engine. It is the culmination of over twelve years of research and development, beginning with the paper “Modeling Daylight for Interior Environments” (Ashdown 2004). The details are disclosed herein for those interested in understanding how it works.
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Given this, the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers has just announced the publication of ANSI/ASABE S640 JUL 2017, Quantities and Units of Electromagnetic Radiation for Plants (Photosynthetic Organisms). Developed over two years by an international team of experts from industry and academia, this standard brings some much-needed order to the metrics of horticultural lighting.
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