Inner life of a cell (microtubules start at about 3:20)
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define the basic function of each cell organelle
Over the past year I have interacted with hundreds of people with diabetes, and have come to learn one very important lesson that has changed my view of diabetes altogether. This realization came to me early on in my career as a nutrition and fitness coach for people with diabetes, and continues to hold true.
There are three main types of sphingolipids: ceramides, sphingomyelins, and glycosphingolipids, which differ in the substituents on their head group.
describe technique for creating a wet mount slide
Ensure to leave spaces for mitochondria, and do not overcrowd the cell.
Chloroplasts are the food-making organelles of the plant cell since they are the site for photosynthesis.
Each chloroplast comprises a network of membranes that contain pigments and enzymes essential for harvesting light energy, and converting it into chemical energy.
They contain water, food molecules as well as cellular waste.
Glycosylation of Cer leads to the glycosphingolipid production, resulting in the gangliosides described above. Ceramidase catalyzes the formation of sphingosine, and SM synthase metabolizes Cer to SM.
REAL carbohydrates have untold health benefits, and are absolutely required for optimal athletic performance, athletic recovery and preventing against lipid overload.
smooth ER - site lipid and carbohydrate synthesis
4. Gentle place a coverslip on top of the stain.
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8. Place on the stage platform.
it forms a link between the nuclear membrane and the cell
9. Observe with the microscope, beginning with the scanning power.
site of carbohydrate and lipid synthesis
III. Cell physiology demonstration:
Several investigators have shed light on the ability of fatty acids to induce low-grade inflammation, which acts as an initial step in a series of events leading to damaged blood vessels, liver disease, heart disease and hypertension:
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When excess fat accumulates it the muscle and liver tissue, the ability of glucose to enter both tissues is significantly compromised. In another paper written about the effect of saturated fatty acids on tissue function, the authors state the following:
ceramides sphingomyelins glycosphingolipids
Dihydroceramide and/or ceramide is translocated from the ER to the and then converted to sphingomyelin (SM) and dihydrosphingomyelin (DH-SM) by sphingomyelin synthase on the lumenal side of the Golgi, or to glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and dihydroglucosylceramide (DH-GlcCer) on the cytosolic surface of the Golgi.
Watch this video for a synopsis of the causes of insulin resistance:
In two rapid reactions, the product, 3-ketosphinganine (Keto), is reduced to sphinganine (dihydrosphingosine; DHS) and subsequently acylated by ceramide synthase to form dihydroceramide (DH-Cer).
Dihydroceramide is then converted to ceramide by a desaturase.
Too often, the blame is placed on carbohydrates as the cause of insulin resistance despite the fact that the evidence clearly supports that excessive fat consumption causes excessive fat storage.
Pathology: disorders of sphingolipid metabolism
The de novo synthesis of all sphingolipids begins at the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is where the that are required for ceramide biosynthesis are located.
The amount of SER varies based on the function of a cell
The insertion of the trans 4,5 double bond into ceramide by the desaturase is an important step because ceramide, and not dihydroceramide, induces apoptosis.
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