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"Cryptography" Thesis Topic ..

The term Financial Cryptography was invented by Robert Hettinga as a name for a conference held annually in Anguilla.

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Thesis | Password | Cryptography

Many designs of Financial Cryptography systems have limited Issuers to being banks, which allows the designer to assume away many complications.

 The Cryptix  lists popular cryptography books, including links for purchasing.

Turing's local home was at King's, his global home was that of Hilbert and Hardy for whom the world was a single country. Bletchley Park was a home from home, linked strongly to King's College culture, but housing a world intelligentsia. But Turing, unlike Hardy, was prepared to do the 'trivial' mathematics of the Enigma. As if to cheek Hardy, he made chess-playing his analogy for intelligence when starting discussions of Artificial Intelligence in wartime Huts. But there was 'real' mathematics too: in group theory and probability, Turing brought the power of mathematics to a pre-scientific world (where only the Polish algebraists had gone before) and created his own information theory. To break the Enigma, Turing and Welchman put their astonishing logic into the electromagnetic Bombes. At the same time Turing took on Naval Enigma alone disregarding the discouragement of his superior, Commander Denniston: 'You know, the Germans don't mean you to read their stuff, and I don't expect you ever will.' And why did he? His colleague Hugh Alexander's report, released from secrecy 55 years later, reveals that Turing said they had  to be broken because the intellectual challenge was so great. Broken they duly were. Hardy-like, he refused to say he had done it from the call of Duty; the truth was that he had found it fascinating. I have always found the greatest drama in this, that the innocence of deeply unworldly mathematics, met the call of the greatest world crisis, and met it at its very centre. Turing was fully aware of international events; he had even sponsored a refugee. But his Cambridge scientific mind made the war a chess game, one we now know to have been a duel with the young German logician Gisbert Hasenjaeger, entrusted with the keys of the Reich. After losing that war Hasenjaeger returned to logic, and when eventually interviewed on television, had outlived his victor by forty-five years. In 1936-7 Turing portrayed cryptography as something that would flow from his logic, something that would be a game against Germany, and something that meant an essentially moral choice, a sacrifice of purity. He chose in 1938, as Snow White bit on the apple. Did he sense even then, as he signed the Official Secrets Act, that he was killing truthfulness? It is strange irony that Turing's magical design for the Bombe turned upon the concept of following through the proliferating implications of false hypotheses. The Bombe required a novel synthesis of ideas and engineering; and an ingenuity of logic that few at Bletchley Park understood; it was a miracle that Denniston was persuaded to invest so much in a great gamble. The first Bombe to be delivered was named by Turing: a joke that atheist Hardy might have made (though Hardy at that moment was making his unapologetic apology, trying to avoid thought of the war). Further irony showed in the names they used: as if this ingenious statistical analysis of the Lorenz machine ciphers were some Hegelian philosophy, as if the placing of long paper tapes against each other were the of marxist planners. were silly German Enigma operators' errors; but also perhaps the silliness of spending scientific talent on the crimes and folly of mankind. (Now, exiles from mathematical physics who enter the ephemera of futures markets, computer operating systems and e-commerce could echo the sentiment.) Newman, at Bletchley after 1942, lamented that it could not have been a pure-mathematical research group. But it was science; unlike what was shown in television's it was the power of scientific method; the production line of information with Turing uniquely placed to see electronics making program handling practical, and so able to embody the universal machine. Turing saw the future far clearer than practical people, having borrowed from it to defeat Nazi Germany. In 1945 British vision for planning was well abreast of the United States, with a confidence in turning War work to future prosperity. Turing evoked the potential of the computer in his plan for the Automatic Computing Engine at the National Physical Laboratory, his universal machine turned to national utility. So did Newman, taking Turing's idea to Manchester for a computer devoted to pure mathematics. But Turing and Newman both lost their pitch. The turning-point was in 1948, as Turing gave up on the NPL, and joined Newman and Blackett as Cambridge minds at Manchester. Newman had secured a Royal Society grant for the development of a computer — regarded as a universal Turing machine, as the terms of Turing's appointment in 1948 made clear. But Turing was unable to enjoy more than superficial collaboration with the engineers who had taken over the project. The Royal Society's priorities was forgotten: the Manchester computer was engineered for the British atomic bomb, everything Hardy might have feared in his grimmest lines. The successful synthesis of ideas and engineering in that other, defensive, logical Bombe remained Turing's secret. And later American commercial success soon ensured that the history of the computer was located in the United States.

Ben Lynn's PhD thesis - Applied Cryptography Group

Hardy's sharpest reproof was to utilitarian — in his time marxist-influenced — talk of mathematics for planning and order. (It reads oddly now. Today's emphasis would be on short-term profit, which never entered into Hardy's dialectic.) It is now a commonplace remark that Hardy was wrong about relativity and quantum mechanics having no military use, as was soon to be shown. Hardy would have been surprised, I think, that advanced number theory is now of great significance for commercial cryptography. Though allowing the possibility of such an application, Hardy still ended ringingly 'I have done nothing useful.' Turing made no such predictions of purity and issued no soul-searching apology.

Turing was fully aware of international events; he had even sponsored a refugee. But his Cambridge scientific mind made the war a chess game, one we now know to have been a duel with the young German logician Gisbert Hasenjaeger, entrusted with the keys of the Reich. After losing that war Hasenjaeger returned to logic, and when eventually interviewed on television, had outlived his victor by forty-five years. In 1936-7 Turing portrayed cryptography as something that would flow from his logic, something that would be a game against Germany, and something that meant an essentially moral choice, a sacrifice of purity. He chose in 1938, as Snow White bit on the apple. Did he sense even then, as he signed the Official Secrets Act, that he was killing truthfulness? It is strange irony that Turing's magical design for the Bombe turned upon the concept of following through the proliferating implications of false hypotheses.

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