Thesis Environment | Agriculture | Pesticide
- Al Gore and the Environment term paper explicates his environmental policy and Gore’s book Earth in the Balance.
Thesis environment by lancetgvb - issuu
By contrast to the focus on wild places, relatively littleattention has been paid to the built environment, although this is theone in which most people spend most of their time. In post-warBritain, for example, cheaply constructed new housing developmentswere often poor replacements for traditional communities. They havebeen associated with lower amounts of social interaction and increasedcrime compared with the earlier situation. The destruction of highlyfunctional high-density traditional housing, indeed, might be comparedwith the destruction of highly diverse ecosystems and bioticcommunities. Likewise, the loss of the world’s huge diversity ofnatural languages has been mourned by many, not just professionalswith an interest in linguistics. Urban and linguistic environments arejust two of the many “places” inhabited by humans. Somephilosophical theories about natural environments and objects havepotential to be extended to cover built environments and non-naturalobjects of several sorts (see King 2000, Light 2001, Palmer 2003,while Fox 2007 aims to include both built and natural environments inthe scope of a single ethical theory). Certainly there are manyparallels between natural and artificial domains: for example, many ofthe conceptual problems involved in discussing the restoration ofnatural objects also appear in the parallel context of restoringhuman-made objects.
Many traditional western ethical perspectives, however, areanthropocentric or human-centered in that either they assignintrinsic value to human beings alone (i.e., what we might callanthropocentric in a strong sense) or they assign asignificantly greater amount of intrinsic value to human beings thanto any non-human things such that the protection or promotion of humaninterests or well-being at the expense of non-human things turns outto be nearly always justified (i.e., what we might callanthropocentric in a weak sense). For example, Aristotle(Politics, Bk. 1, Ch. 8) maintains that “nature hasmade all things specifically for the sake of man” and that thevalue of non-human things in nature is merely instrumental. Generally,anthropocentric positions find it problematic to articulate what iswrong with the cruel treatment of non-human animals, except to theextent that such treatment may lead to bad consequences for humanbeings. Immanuel Kant (“Duties to Animals and Spirits”, inLectures on Ethics), for instance, suggests that crueltytowards a dog might encourage a person to develop a character whichwould be desensitized to cruelty towards humans. From this standpoint,cruelty towards non-human animals would be instrumentally, rather thanintrinsically, wrong. Likewise, anthropocentrism often recognizes somenon-intrinsic wrongness of anthropogenic (i.e. human-caused)environmental devastation. Such destruction might damage thewell-being of human beings now and in the future, since our well-beingis essentially dependent on a sustainable environment (see Passmore1974; Bookchin 1990; Norton et al. (eds.) 1995).
Environment Conservation Thesis Statements | Term …
Suppose putting out natural fires, culling feral animals ordestroying some individual members of overpopulated indigenous speciesis necessary for the protection of the integrity of a certainecosystem. Will these actions be morally permissible or even required?Is it morally acceptable for farmers in non-industrial countries topractise slash and burn techniques to clear areas for agriculture?Consider a mining company which has performed open pit mining in somepreviously unspoiled area. Does the company have a moral obligation torestore the landform and surface ecology? And what is the value of ahumanly restored environment compared with the originally naturalenvironment? It is often said to be morally wrong for human beings topollute and destroy parts of the natural environment and to consume ahuge proportion of the planet’s natural resources. If that is wrong,is it simply because a sustainable environment is essential to(present and future) human well-being? Or is such behaviour also wrongbecause the natural environment and/or its various contents havecertain values in their own right so that these values ought to berespected and protected in any case? These are among the questionsinvestigated by environmental ethics. Some of them are specificquestions faced by individuals in particular circumstances, whileothers are more global questions faced by groups and communities. Yetothers are more abstract questions concerning the value and moralstanding of the natural environment and its non-human components.
In the literature on environmental ethics the distinction betweeninstrumental value and (in the sense of “non-instrumental value”) has been ofconsiderable importance. The former is the value of things asmeans to further some other ends, whereas the latter is thevalue of things as ends in themselves regardless of whetherthey are also useful as means to other ends. For instance, certainfruits have instrumental value for bats who feed on them, sincefeeding on the fruits is a means to survival for the bats. However, itis not widely agreed that fruits have value as ends in themselves. Wecan likewise think of a person who teaches others as havinginstrumental value for those who want to acquire knowledge. Yet, inaddition to any such value, it is normally said that a person, as aperson, has intrinsic value, i.e., value in his or her own rightindependently of his or her prospects for serving the ends ofothers. For another example, a certain wild plant may haveinstrumental value because it provides the ingredients for somemedicine or as an aesthetic object for human observers. But if theplant also has some value in itself independently of its prospects forfurthering some other ends such as human health, or the pleasure fromaesthetic experience, then the plant also has intrinsic value. Becausethe intrinsically valuable is that which is good as an end in itself,it is commonly agreed that something’s possession of intrinsic valuegenerates a prima facie direct moral duty on the part of moral agentsto protect it or at least refrain from damaging it (see O’Neil 1992and Jamieson 2002 for detailed accounts of intrinsic value).
More recently, the distinction between these two traditionalapproaches has taken its own specific form of development inenvironmental philosophy. Instead of pitting conceptions of valueagainst conceptions of rights, it has been suggested that there may betwo different conceptions of intrinsic value in play in discussionabout environmental good and evil. One the one side, there is theintrinsic value of states of affairs that are to be promoted - andthis is the focus of the consequentialist thinkers. On the other(deontological) hand there is the intrinsic values of entities to berespected (see Bradley 2006, McShane 2014). These two different focifor the notion of intrinsic value still provide room for fundamentalargument between deontologists and consequentialist to continue,albeit in a somewhat modified form.
As the utilitarian focus is the balance of pleasure and pain as such,the question of to whom a pleasure or pain belongs is irrelevant tothe calculation and assessment of the rightness or wrongness ofactions. Hence, the eighteenth century utilitarian Jeremy Bentham(1789), and now Peter Singer (1993), have argued that the interests ofall the sentient beings (i.e., beings who are capable of experiencingpleasure or pain)—including non-human ones—affected by an actionshould be taken equally into consideration in assessing theaction. Furthermore, rather like Routley (see section 2 above), Singerargues that the anthropocentric privileging of members of the speciesHomo sapiens is arbitrary, and that it is a kind of“speciesism” as unjustifiable as sexism and racism. Singerregards the animal liberation movement as comparable to the liberationmovements of women and people of colour. Unlike the environmentalphilosophers who attribute intrinsic value to the natural environmentand its inhabitants, Singer and utilitarians in general attributeintrinsic value to the experience of pleasure or interest satisfactionas such, not to the beings who have the experience. Similarly, for theutilitarian, non-sentient objects in the environment such as plantspecies, rivers, mountains, and landscapes, all of which are theobjects of moral concern for environmentalists, are of no intrinsicbut at most instrumental value to the satisfaction of sentient beings(see Singer 1993, Ch. 10). Furthermore, because right actions, for theutilitarian, are those that maximize the overall balance of interestsatisfaction over frustration, practices such as whale-hunting and thekilling of an elephant for ivory, which cause suffering to non-humananimals, might turn out to be right after all: such practices mightproduce considerable amounts of interest-satisfaction for humanbeings, which, on the utilitarian calculation, outweigh the non-humaninterest-frustration involved. As the result of all the aboveconsiderations, it is unclear to what extent a utilitarian ethic canalso be an environmental ethic. This point may not so readily apply toa wider consequentialist approach, which attributes intrinsic valuenot only to pleasure or satisfaction, but also to various objects andprocesses in the natural environment.
Thesis Topics • Environmental Program Colorado College
Integral approaches to studying the environment;
- Effects of Water Pollution on the Environment and Human Life research papers look at the different toxins.
Phd Thesis In Disaster Environment Development
- Environmental Ethics research papers delve into an order placed on an essay with specific source requirements.
Phd Thesis Environmental Sustainability
Handley, James Allen. 2003. The role of GIS in enhancing environmental education. LD5771.322 .H363 2003. (Hultquist)
THESIS ON ENVIRONMENT - Liberty Public Market
Although environmental ethicists often try to distance themselvesfrom the anthropocentrism embedded in traditional ethical views(Passmore 1974, Norton 1991 are exceptions), they also quite oftendraw their theoretical resources from traditional ethical systems andtheories. Consider the following two basic moral questions: (1) Whatkinds of thing are intrinsically valuable, good or bad? (2) What makesan action right or wrong?
K l kan environment thesis on oba nk
Deep ecology, feminism, and social ecology have had a considerableimpact on the development of political positions in regard to theenvironment. Feminist analyses have often been welcomed for thepsychological insight they bring to several social, moral andpolitical problems. There is, however, considerable unease about theimplications of critical theory, social ecology and some varieties ofdeep ecology and animism. Some writers have argued, forexample, that critical theory is bound to be ethicallyanthropocentric, with nature as no more than a “socialconstruction” whose value ultimately depends on humandeterminations (see Vogel 1996). Others have argued that the demandsof “deep” green theorists and activists cannot beaccommodated within contemporary theories of liberal politics andsocial justice (see Ferry 1998). A further suggestion is that there isa need to reassess traditional theories such as virtue ethics, whichhas its origins in ancient Greek philosophy (see the followingsection) within the context of a form of stewardship similar to thatearlier endorsed by Passmore (see Barry 1999). If this last claim iscorrect, then the radical activist need not, after all, look forphilosophical support in radical, or countercultural, theories of thesort deep ecology, feminism, bioregionalism and social ecology claimto be (but see Zimmerman 1994).
Thesis | Environmental Studies | Bates College
Volker, Gretchen. 2008. Dispersed Camping-Induced Environmental Degradation along Terraced Riparian Habitats: Assessment and Management along the Upper Cle Elum River, Washington. (Sullivan)
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