Export credits and the costs of trade financing
Here we will consider the bank in two roles: (1) as the institution financing the importer, and (2) as the exporter's bank.
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The goods. Trade finance is supposed to be self-liquidating and the goods must be readily saleable. Consideration should also be given to the risks associated with perishability of the goods, possible obsolescence, import regulations, packing and storage, etc.
IFC’s Trade and Commodity Finance programs offer guarantees, risk-sharing facilities, loans and other structured products to support trade in emerging markets. Through these various products, IFC has supported more than 400 financial institutions and thousands of underlying companies in more than 90 countries across all regions of the globe.
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Macro risks can be defined as those external factors which have a tendency to impact adversely on a customer's international trade business. Some of the more frequent problems in trade financing are caused by a lack of appreciation of country risk, foreign exchange risk, industry risk, bank risk and fraud.
Micro risks are encountered at the individual customer level and are confined to the financial (credit) and operational risks associated with their business.
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The factors usually associated with this type of risk are the political and economic stability of a country, exchange controls, if any, and the country's penchant for protectionism of domestic industry at short notice. All these factors will determine whether the country can and will honor their payment commitments-in time. For example, from many a first world country point of view, Sri Lanka is seen as a reasonable short term risk, (i.e., an export exposure up to two years is considered in order, provided the Sri Lankan importer can produce a documentary credit, preferably confirmed by a "first class" bank.) This is because Sri Lanka has liberalized exchange control, has no history of default on foreign debt commitments and has a reasonably robust economy. What holds the country back from being seen as a "more comfortable" level of risk is the political problems caused by the separatist issue.
Most banks have specialized units dealing with country risk and they control the level of exposure that bank will assume for each country. This system of policing is vital where balancing the stability of the institution against the greater profitability of transactions with higher risk areas. However, there is often a lot of friction between commercial bankers and these units where the former feels that the latter is too strict at times and business considerations are overlooked.
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Traditionally, international trade has always been considered "low risk", and this is attributed to the four "S's". Compared with other forms of bank lending, financing trade transactions is popular because these deals are:
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Payments and receipts in foreign currency are an everyday occurrence in international trade and the trader is always at the mercy of exchange rate fluctuations due to various economic, politicaland even purely speculative reasons. The astronomical volume of the global foreign exchange market leaves the importer/exporter with no control and an adverse movement in the transaction currency vis-a-vis the local currency can wipe out the entire profit and more of the deal.
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We do not need a rocket scientist to tell us that the world is full of banks of varying degrees of stability and strength and indeed the business pages of major magazines and newspapers are filled with articles on bank performance and bank collapse. When financing an importer or exporter, a bank often looks to the security of a backing document issued by another bank, be it a guarantee or a documentary credit. It is important to realize that the documentary credit issued by Bank A may not be as secure as that issued by Bank B, due to Bank A.
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To date, IFC’s Trade and Commodity Finance unit has supported over $145 billion in global trade, of which $57 billion has been in IDA countries, all of which is directly linked to the movement of specific goods across emerging market borders. IFC has enabled $4.6 billion in trade amid challenging conditions in fragile and conflict-affected states and has supported trade and investments in 37 of the 40 fragile and conflict-affected states.
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