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John Dewey's The Theory of Emotion.

Krashen's theory of second language acquisition consists of five main hypotheses:

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This entry considers natural law theories only as ..

First, we must take a moment to define independent and dependent variables. Simply put, an independent variable is the cause and the dependent variable is the effect. The independent variable can be changed whereas the dependent variable is what you're watching for change. For example: How does the amount of makeup one applies affect how clear their skin is? Here, the independent variable is the makeup and the dependent variable is the skin.

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The not uncritical realism of natural law theory, evidenced in itsapproach to the realities of intention as distinct from foresight andinattention, and of self-preferential choice and the differingrelationships between (i) offender and law-abiding and (ii) tortfeasorand victim, similarly enables it to undertake a critical reflection,within legal theory broadly understood, on the kinds of communitycapable of sustaining and being ordered in part by a legal system.

Cash Flow Statement Theory | Cash Flow Statement | …

Respond to the objection(s) and showhow it/they aren't strong enough to refute your position.
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The point made in the preceding paragraph is made in another way byOrrego (Orrego 2007). When the accounts of adjudication andjudicial reasoning proposed by contemporary mainstream legal theoriesare added to those theories' accounts of (the concept of) law, itbecomes clear that, at the level of propositions (as distinct fromnames, words and formulations), those theories share (though notalways without self-contradiction) the principal theses about lawwhich are proposed by classic natural law theorists such as Aquinas:(i) that law establishes reasons for action, (ii) that its rules canand presumptively (defeasibly) do create moral obligations that didnot as such exist prior to the positing of the rules, (iii) that thatkind of legal-moral obligation is defeated by a posited rule's seriousimmorality (injustice), and (iv) that judicial and otherparadigmatically legal deliberation, reasoning and judgment includes,concurrently, both natural (moral) law and (purely) positivelaw. Orrego's point seems to be confirmed by, e.g., the adjacent entryon Legal Positivism (Green 2003). Contemporary“positivist” theories are, it seems, natural law theories,distinguished from the main body of natural law theory (a) by theirdenial that the theory of law (as distinct from the theory ortheories of adjudication, judicial duty, citizens' allegiance, etc.)necessarily or most appropriately tackles the related matters justlisted, and accordingly (b) by the incompleteness of their theories oflaw, that is, the absence from them (and usually, though not always,from their accounts of those related matters) of systematic criticalattention to the foundations of the moral and other normative claimsthat they make or presuppose.

In short: a natural law theory of (the nature of) law seeks both togive an account of the facticity of law and to answer questions thatremain central to understanding law. As listed by Green 2003 (havingobserved that “No legal philosopher can be only a legalpositivist”), these further questions (which “legal positivismdoes not aspire to answer”) are: What kinds of things couldpossibly count as merits of law? What role should law play inadjudication? What claim has law on our obedience? What laws shouldwe have? And should we have law at all? All these questions, thoughorganized and articulated a little differently, are underconsideration in the present entry.

Emotion, Theories of | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Reasons/arguments that show why thestrongest challenge doesn't show your position to be incorrect.
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The legal-moral obligation or obligatoriness of a legal rule iscounterpart to the legal-moral authority or authoritativeness of itsauthor (enacter) or other source. The idea of authority has beenclarified by contemporary legal theorists such as Raz and Hart, byreflection upon the kind of reasons for action purportedly given topotentially acting subjects by an exercise of practical authority. Therelevant kind of practical reason has been variously calledexclusionary, peremptory or pre-emptive, and content-independent. Thecore idea is that subjects are instructed to treat the profferedreason (say, a statutory provision, or a judicial order), in theirdeliberations towards choice and action, as a reason which does notsimply add to the reasons they already have for acting one way ratheranother, but rather excludes and takes the place of some of thosereasons. And this exclusionary, peremptory or pre-emptive force isowed not to the inherent attractiveness to reason of the (content ofthe) proffered reason, but to the status of its author or other sourceas one entitled—for example, by its role in a constitutionalscheme of governance for the solution of a political community'scoordination problems—to be obeyed, complied with, treated asauthoritative. See e.g., Raz 1986, 35–69. Thiscontent-independence of authoritative reasons entails theirpresumptive obligatoriness. The defeasibility of that presumption isentailed by the dependence of such reasons' peremptory, pre-emptive orexclusionary force upon a background of presupposed basic human needsand goods, and of basic moral principles and norms, a background whichentails that if a purportedly authoritative proffered (posited) reasonconflicts sufficiently clearly with those standing needs, goods,principles or norms its exclusionary force is exhausted or overcomeand the purported obligatoriness defeated.

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  • Solution-Brief history of the borrowed theorys origins

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The legal enunciation of rules of criminal law (mostly“prohibitions”) has as its primary goal the elimination orat least discouraging of the specified kinds of action (oromission). In this phase of the legal institution of criminal law andpunishment, the goal can be called deterrence. The fact that this goalworks partly by enforcement and application of the threatened sanctionin the event of violation and conviction does not, however, entailthat deterrence is the formative or even the primary end ofpunishment. Indeed, the institution of punishment has its primarysense and justification, not in deterrence, but in the restoration ofthat presumptively fair balance of burdens and advantages whichoffenders upset, precisely in choosing to prefer their own purposesand advantage to restraining their action so as to avoid violating thelaw. In preferring that self-preferential option, offenders helpthemselves to an advantage over all who do restrain themselves so asto respect the law. The offenders thereby upset the presumptively fairbalance of advantages and burdens between themselves and thelaw-abiding. The primary purpose of punishment thus can reasonably beto restore that disturbed balance by depriving convicted offenders oftheir unfairly gained advantage—excess freedom of action—by imposing upon them measures, punishments, whose precisepurpose is to restrict their freedom of action, whether by fines orimprisonment, proportionately to the degree to which they indulgedtheir self-preference. Punishment in that way seeks to ensure that,over the span of time running from before the offence to theundergoing of the penalty, no one gains an advantage over fellowcitizens by offending.

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Another (andincreasingly common) option is to alternate between the masculine and feminine;that is, to alternately use (b) and (f) should proofread her writing.

Compare and Contrast Any Two Theories of Personality …

Rules of law are propositions of practical reason, apt for being takenas directive in the deliberations of law's individual subjects towardsjudgment, choice (decision), and action (including chosenforbearance). So a sound theory of law will have an integrated andcritical understanding of the structure of chosen action, particularlyof the relationships between the intending of ends, the adoption ofmeans, the dual character of almost all ends as also means, and ofalmost all means as also ends, and the necessity and normalpossibility of freely choosing between options which embody or promisebenefits and disadvantages incommensurable (incompletelycommensurable) (Finnis 1997) with the benefits and disadvantages ofthe alternative options. Such an understanding will clarify the oftensomewhat crude accounts given in criminal law dogmatics (case law andtextbooks) of actus reus andmens rea, accounts whichoften fail to distinguish been action as a physically orconventionally demarcated chunk of behavior and action as the carryingout of the choice of an option, that is of a proposal shaped and thusgiven a privileged description in the deliberations of the actingsubject. The difference between intended or chosen means (or ends) andforeseeable or even fully foreseen effects(“side-effects”), like the consequent difference betweenthe moral and, presumptively, legal standards applicable respectivelyto intended and not-intended effects, is psychologically and morallyreal. But it is often distorted by a simplistic legal dogmatics tooaverse to the (very real) risk that defendants will prevaricate aboutwhat they had in mind. What counts, and can often be inferred despiteprevarication, is the act-description under which the behavior chosenwas attractive to the defendant in his or her actual deliberations (asdistinct from rationalizing act-descriptions adopted to present thatmotivation in a better light).

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