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Enzymes in Tryptophan Biosynthesis

does not make the enzymesfortryptophan biosynthesis if it can find preexisting tryptophan in itsenvironment.

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Enzymes in Tryptophan Biosynthesis - Penn State …

The formation of enzymatic activities involved in the biosynthesis of tryptophan in Neurospora crassa was examined under various conditions in several strains. With growth-limiting tryptophan, the formation of four enzymatic activities, anthranilic acid synthetase (AAS), anthranilate-5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate phosphoribosyl transferase (PRAT), indoleglycerol phosphate synthetase (InGPS), and tryptophan synthetase (TS) did not occur coordinately. AAS and TS activities began to increase immediately, whereas PRAT and InGPS activities began to increase only after 6 to 12 hr of incubation. In the presence of amitrole (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole), the formation of TS activity in a wild-type strain was more greatly enhanced than were AAS and InGPS activities. With a tr-3 mutant, which ordinarily exhibits an elevated TS activity, amitrole did not produce an increase in TS activity greater than that observed on limiting tryptophan. With tr-3 mutants, the increased levels of TS activity could be correlated with the accumulation of indoleglycerol in the medium; prior genetic blocks which prevented or reduced the synthesis of indoleglycerol also reduced the formation of TS activity. The addition of indoleglycerol to cultures of a double mutant (tr-1, tr-3) which could not synthesize indoleglycerol markedly stimulated the production of TS activity but not PRAT activity; the production of TS activity reached the same level with limiting or with excess tryptophan. A model explaining these and other related observations on enzyme formation in N. crassa is proposed.

Free tryptophan pool and tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

N2 - The tryptophan (Trp) biosynthetic pathway leads to the production of many secondary metabolites with diverse functions, and its regulation is predicted to respond to the needs for both protein synthesis and secondary metabolism. We have tested the response of the Trp pathway enzymes and three other amino acid biosynthetic enzymes to starvation for aromatic amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, or methionine. The Trp pathway enzymes and cytosolic glutamine synthetase were induced under all of the amino acid starvation test conditions, whereas methionine synthase and acetolactate synthase were not. The mRNAs for two stress-inducible enzymes unrelated to amino acid biosynthesis and accumulation of the indolic phytoalexin camalexin were also induced by amino acid starvation. These results suggest that regulation of the Trp pathway enzymes under amino acid deprivation conditions is largely a stress response to allow for increased biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Consistent with this hypothesis, treatments with the oxidative stress-inducing herbicide acifluorfen and the abiotic elicitor α-amino butyric acid induced responses similar to those induced by the amino acid starvation treatments. The role of salicylic acid in herbicide-mediated Trp and camalexin induction was investigated.

Flavonoid biosynthesis in plants: genes and enzymes

Cross-pathway regulation: tryptophan-mediated control of histidine and arginine biosynthetic enzymes in Neurospora crassa.

AB - Maize liquid endosperm extracts contain the enzymes necessary for all of the steps of the plant IAA biosynthetic pathway from tryptophan, and provide a means to assay the pathway in vitro. We have analyzed the reactions in the presence of a series of indole and indole-like analogues in order to evaluate the potential of these compounds to act as inhibitors of IAA biosynthesis. Such inhibitors will be useful to investigate the tryptophan to IAA pathway, to determine the precursors and intermediates involved, and to select for mutants in this process. A number of such compounds were tested using in vitro enzyme assays for both the tryptophan dependent IAA biosynthesis pathway and for tryptophan synthase β activity. Some compounds showed strong inhibition of IAA biosynthesis while having only a slight effect on the reaction rate of tryptophan synthase β. These results: (1) show that IAA biosynthesis can be selectively inhibited relative to tryptophan biosynthesis; (2) suggest potential ways to screen for IAA biosynthetic pathway mutations in plants; and (3) provide additional tools for studies of IAA biosynthesis in plants.

N2 - Maize liquid endosperm extracts contain the enzymes necessary for all of the steps of the plant IAA biosynthetic pathway from tryptophan, and provide a means to assay the pathway in vitro. We have analyzed the reactions in the presence of a series of indole and indole-like analogues in order to evaluate the potential of these compounds to act as inhibitors of IAA biosynthesis. Such inhibitors will be useful to investigate the tryptophan to IAA pathway, to determine the precursors and intermediates involved, and to select for mutants in this process. A number of such compounds were tested using in vitro enzyme assays for both the tryptophan dependent IAA biosynthesis pathway and for tryptophan synthase β activity. Some compounds showed strong inhibition of IAA biosynthesis while having only a slight effect on the reaction rate of tryptophan synthase β. These results: (1) show that IAA biosynthesis can be selectively inhibited relative to tryptophan biosynthesis; (2) suggest potential ways to screen for IAA biosynthetic pathway mutations in plants; and (3) provide additional tools for studies of IAA biosynthesis in plants.

The Tryptophan Steal – The Hidden Reason Stress Makes …

Structural conservation in parallel beta/alpha-barrel enzymes that catalyze three sequential reactions in the pathway of tryptophan biosynthesis.

N2 - Methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of methylamine to formaldehyde and ammonia. Tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) is the protein-derived cofactor of MADH required for this catalytic activity. TTQ is biosynthesized through the posttranslational modification of two tryptophan residues within MADH, during which the indole rings of two tryptophan side chains are cross-linked and two oxygen atoms are inserted into one of the indole rings. MauG is a c-type diheme enzyme that catalyzes the final three reactions in TTQ formation. In total, this is a six-electron oxidation process requiring three cycles of MauG-dependent two-electron oxidation events using either H2O2 or O2. The MauG redox form responsible for the catalytic activity is an unprecedented bis-FeIV species. The amino acids of MADH that are modified are ∼40 Å from the site where MauG binds oxygen, and the reaction proceeds by a hole hopping electron transfer mechanism. This review addresses these highly unusual aspects of the long-range catalytic reaction mediated by MauG.

Maize liquid endosperm extracts contain the enzymes necessary for all of the steps of the plant IAA biosynthetic pathway from tryptophan, and provide a means to assay the pathway in vitro. We have analyzed the reactions in the presence of a series of indole and indole-like analogues in order to evaluate the potential of these compounds to act as inhibitors of IAA biosynthesis. Such inhibitors will be useful to investigate the tryptophan to IAA pathway, to determine the precursors and intermediates involved, and to select for mutants in this process. A number of such compounds were tested using in vitro enzyme assays for both the tryptophan dependent IAA biosynthesis pathway and for tryptophan synthase β activity. Some compounds showed strong inhibition of IAA biosynthesis while having only a slight effect on the reaction rate of tryptophan synthase β. These results: (1) show that IAA biosynthesis can be selectively inhibited relative to tryptophan biosynthesis; (2) suggest potential ways to screen for IAA biosynthetic pathway mutations in plants; and (3) provide additional tools for studies of IAA biosynthesis in plants.

Five genes encode five enzymes that catalyze tryptophan biosynthesis from chorismate
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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 L-tryptophan biosynthesis

AB - The tryptophan (Trp) biosynthetic pathway leads to the production of many secondary metabolites with diverse functions, and its regulation is predicted to respond to the needs for both protein synthesis and secondary metabolism. We have tested the response of the Trp pathway enzymes and three other amino acid biosynthetic enzymes to starvation for aromatic amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, or methionine. The Trp pathway enzymes and cytosolic glutamine synthetase were induced under all of the amino acid starvation test conditions, whereas methionine synthase and acetolactate synthase were not. The mRNAs for two stress-inducible enzymes unrelated to amino acid biosynthesis and accumulation of the indolic phytoalexin camalexin were also induced by amino acid starvation. These results suggest that regulation of the Trp pathway enzymes under amino acid deprivation conditions is largely a stress response to allow for increased biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Consistent with this hypothesis, treatments with the oxidative stress-inducing herbicide acifluorfen and the abiotic elicitor α-amino butyric acid induced responses similar to those induced by the amino acid starvation treatments. The role of salicylic acid in herbicide-mediated Trp and camalexin induction was investigated.

In Escherichia coli tryptophan is ..

The VioB protein is similar to polyketide synthase, an enzyme with a very interesting activity, since it is able to catalyze nonribosomal peptide bonds, and in violacein biosynthesis pathway it apparently catalyzes the condensation of two tryptophan derivative molecules, which are essential for pigment production (August et al., 2000).

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture

The tryptophan (Trp) biosynthetic pathway leads to the production of many secondary metabolites with diverse functions, and its regulation is predicted to respond to the needs for both protein synthesis and secondary metabolism. We have tested the response of the Trp pathway enzymes and three other amino acid biosynthetic enzymes to starvation for aromatic amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, or methionine. The Trp pathway enzymes and cytosolic glutamine synthetase were induced under all of the amino acid starvation test conditions, whereas methionine synthase and acetolactate synthase were not. The mRNAs for two stress-inducible enzymes unrelated to amino acid biosynthesis and accumulation of the indolic phytoalexin camalexin were also induced by amino acid starvation. These results suggest that regulation of the Trp pathway enzymes under amino acid deprivation conditions is largely a stress response to allow for increased biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Consistent with this hypothesis, treatments with the oxidative stress-inducing herbicide acifluorfen and the abiotic elicitor α-amino butyric acid induced responses similar to those induced by the amino acid starvation treatments. The role of salicylic acid in herbicide-mediated Trp and camalexin induction was investigated.

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