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The synthesis of the major myelin components starts when ..

This would seem to be a violation of the rule that the visceromotor systemis a two neuron system.

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of these two key components of myelin ..

Scanning electron micrograph of surface of alveolar epithelium of human lung with two type II epithelial cells (). , boundary (terminal bar) of type I cell. , nucleus of type I cell. , 5 μm.

The synthesis of the major myelin components starts when oligodendrocyte ..

Scanning electron micrograph of surface of alveolar epithelium of human lung with two type II epithelial cells (). , boundary (terminal bar) of type I cell. , nucleus of type I cell. , 5 μm.

There are two broad classes of cells in the nervous ..

where the process of protein synthesis actually takes place

During the same period, important data has been gathered concerning the synthesis and function of lipids in PNS myelin, although this field has received relatively little attention compared with that of their protein counterparts.">

During the same period, important data has been gathered concerning the synthesis and function of lipids in PNS myelin, although this field has received relatively little attention compared with that of their protein counterparts.

of glucose can be used as components for myelin synthesis

Two major components of nervous system, 1

The myelin-associated proteolipid protein, PLP, is one of the two major components of the central nervous system (CNS) myelin. We analyze, by using a rat PLP cDNA and S1 nuclease protection experiments, the PLP transcripts in the mouse brain and show that the PLP gene encodes two different but related mRNA transcripts, the PLP and the DM-20 transcripts. On the other hand, we demonstrate that in the jimpy mutant, which is characterized by an abnormal CNS myelination, both these transcripts are partially deleted in the 3' end of their coding region. The deletion is 70 (+/- 5) nucleotides long. Implications of this finding for the synthesis of PLP and DM-20 proteins in the mutant are discussed.

Brilliant has recommended thatSluggo inject a local anesthetic up beneath the lower border of rib 8,Just posterior to the area where he wants to do the pleural tap.

where it regulates Myelin Basic Protein synthesis
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  • Myelin is a fatty white substance that surrounds the axon ..

    28/08/2015 · Decentralized synthesis of myelin components in the CNS appears to be a ..

  • This regeneration depends upon two ..

    Minor components of myelin include at least three esters of cerebroside and two lipids based on glycerol; Myelin ..

  • Induction of myelin components: cyclic AMP increases …

    Need Help Writing an Essay? - where in the cell does protein synthesis occur - Nov 11, 2017

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Synthesis and Metabolism of Myelin - Basic …

AB - A Schwann cell has the potential to differentiate into either a myelinating or ensheathing cell depending upon signals received from the axon that it contacts. Studies focusing on the pathway leading to myelination demonstrated that Schwann cells must form a basal lamina in order to myelinate an axon. In this report, we describe studies that indicate that initiation of basal lamina synthesis is required for Schwann cells to distinguish between myelination-inducing axons and axons that do not induce myelination, and to respond by undergoing the appropriate genetic and cellular changes. We have used high resolution in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy to examine changes in gene expression and morphology of Schwann cells differentiating into myelin-forming cells in vitro. These experiments were carried out in dorsal root ganglion neuron/Schwann cell co-cultures maintained in either serum-free, serum-only or serum-plus-ascorbate-containing medium. We have made four novel observations that contribute significantly to our understanding of how basal lamina and myelination are linked. (1) The addition of ascorbate (in the presence of serum), which promotes basal lamina production, appears to induce expression of the protein zero gene encoding the major structural protein of myelin. Moreover, expression of protein zero mRNA and protein, and its insertion into myelin membranes, occurs only in the subset of Schwann cells contacting myelination-inducing axons. Schwann cells in contact with axons that do not induce myelination, or Schwann cells that have not established a unitary relationship with an axon, do not express protein zero mRNA although they produce basal lamina components. (2) In serum-free conditions, a majority of Schwann cells express protein zero mRNA and protein, but this change in gene expression is not associated with basal lamina formation or with elongation of the Schwann cell along the axon and elaboration of myelin. (3) In the presence of serum (and the absence of ascorbate), Schwann cells again fail to form basal lamina or elongate but no longer express protein zero mRNA or protein. (4) Myelin-associated glycoprotein and galactocerebroside, two additional myelin-specific components, can be expressed by Schwann cells under any of the three culture conditions. Therefore, we have demonstrated that axonal induction of protein zero gene expression in Schwann cells is subject to regulation by both serum- and ascorbate-dependent pathways and that not all myelin-specific proteins are regulated in the same manner. Only when Schwann cells contact axons and initiate basal lamina synthesis is expression of myelin-specific genes restricted to the subset of Schwann cells contacting myelination-inducing axons and coupled to cellular differentiation. In the absence of basal lamina formation, Schwann cells in contact with axons seem to express myelin-specific proteins spuriously without undergoing further differentiation. In sum, these findings suggest that basal lamina serves to simultaneously induce myelin gene expression and cell shape changes in those Schwann cells associated with axons destined for myelination. Basal lamina also suppresses the expression of myelin genes in these SCs in contact with axons that do not induce myelination.

Synthesis and Metabolism of Myelin

N2 - The data here reported show that the gene expression of the glycoprotein Po and of the myelin basic protein, the major components of myelin in the peripheral nervous system, dramatically decreases with ageing in the sciatic nerve of normal male rats. A one-month treatment with dihydroprogesterone, the 5α-reduced derivative of progesterone, is able to partially restore the fall in Po gene expression occuring in the sciatic nerve of aged male rats, without significantly modifying the gene expression of the myelin basic protein. In cultures of neonatal Schwann cells (the peripheral nervous system elements involved in the synthesis of myelin), the addition of progesterone and of dihydroprogesterone significantly increases Po gene expression; the 3α-reduced metabolite of dihydroprogesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone proved to be even more effective. These data suggest that the effect of progesterone is linked to its conversion into dihydroprogesterone and especially into tetrahydroprogesterone, since Schwann cells possess the 5α-reductase-3α- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase system. The data provide the first demonstration that ageing decreases the gene expression of two major components of the peripheral myelin in the sciatic nerve; they also show that this phenomenon may be partially reversed by progesterone derivatives, which might act by stimulating Po gene expression in the Schwann cells.

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