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From the Latin, "to insert beside"

These OWL resources will help you with punctuation, such as using commas, quotation marks, apostrophes, and hyphens.

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It is also worth noting that the comma operator works well with any of the other active logic operators. In particular, the the ternary operator ? can often make use of it. For example:

If you would like some additional guidelines on using a comma after introductory elements, click .

Commas: In general, use commas anywhere you would pause if you read the sentence aloud. If you’re a person who pauses often while speaking, this suggestion probably won’t work for you. Ask several people to read your letter for punctuation and grammar and follow their suggestions. Or get a good punctuation guide and follow it.

"a" is handled as user defined function.

Following are some guidelines that address common punctuation slip-ups:

Parentheses (singular parenthesis) are felt to be stronger than a comma and similar in weight to an m-dash (—). Parentheses are sometimes called ’round brackets’. Other punctuation can sometimes be substituted for parenthesis, including

The same sentences can be written with the abbreviations in parentheses, where the comma is still required "after" the abbreviation but should not be placed "before" (in American English anyway). See again below:

is incorrect. A comma is required after "Gray."

So to be 100% clear, the comma is only a comma operator when it acts on two expressions:

A common error occurs with parenthetic phrases following the conjunction that. The comma that belongs after the conjunction is often placed before it instead:

Parenthetic expressions may be set off by parentheses or dashes instead of commas, depending on the degree of emphasis or pause desired, or the length of the expression. Compare:

David K Woodroof, Woodroof's Quotations, Commas and Other Things English. iUniverse, 2005
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  • The comma can be a useful device for securing a pause or emphasis:

    Not every comma in JavaScript is an operator - in fact most of them aren't. It is time to confront the confusing comma.

  • A comma may be used to indicate that words have been omitted:

    (A complete sentence that stands alone in parentheses starts with a capital letter and ends with a stop.)

  • Again, the comma may be omitted if clarity is not compromised.

    Students who pursue a Master of Accounting, which is commonly called MAcc, must complete …

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Do not insert commas in numerical expressions such as the following:

The only rule for semicolons is as follows: When you introduce a list of complete sentences by using a colon, separate each sentence with a semicolon. For example:

In personal letters, the colon is usually replaced by a comma:

The comma operator fits in with a set of expression operators that can be useful, but it has a tendency to be used in ways that confuse rather than clarify. Part of the reason for this is that it is a comma, and commas have other meanings in JavaScript.

These factors should determine committee size:


Sometimes the appositive and the word it identifies are so closely related that the comma can be omitted, as in "His wife Eleanor suddenly decided to open her own business." We could argue that the name "Eleanor" is not essential to the meaning of the sentence (assuming he has only one wife), and that would suggest that we can put commas both before and after the name (and that would also be correct), but "his wife" and "Eleanor" are so close that we can regard the entire phrase as one unit and leave out the commas.

The Bureau has set the following priorities for the coming year:

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Using commas for parenthesis - Grammar Monster

If what is enclosed in the brackets is a complete sentence, it makes sense to put the full stop inside the sentence too. (Here’s an example.) If the bracketed words form part of a sentence that is not itself bracketed, then there is no reason not to put the full stop where it would go anyway, at the end of the sentence (like this).

Using Commas for a Parenthesis ..

However, as others noted, many style guides for formal writing, including APA (which was not previously mentioned) mandate the parenthetical use of these and most other Latin abbreviations within text. The one common exception is use of "et al.," which can be used within or without parentheses in text and reference sections. I don't understand the rationale; since the abbreviations and the parentheses both denote examples or additional explanation provided, use of both seems redundant. Nonetheless, if you're writing for academic or scientific purposes, you will most likely be at the mercy of a style-guide enforcer, so it is best to comply.

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