For a more detailed description of how ribosomes function,

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The ribosomes are located within the cytoplasm.

As you can see, ribosomes are complex structures (ribonucleoprotein enzyme complexes).

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Ribosome is the site for protein synthesis.

The code is read in three letter increments called codons
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The Role of tRNA
The anticodon on the tRNA match up with the codons of mRNA.

For Example: Methionine (Start) has the codon: AUG

The tRNA anticodon for Met is: UAC

In order to build a protein, a special ribosome must read the codon sequences of mRNA and assemble the corresponding amino acids.

Where does translation happen???...

Ribosomes make proteins and proteins make cells.

Proteins destined for the plasma membrane are also manufactured in the RER, so that they can be
readily packaged into membrane-bound vesicles and enter the membrane-transport system.

Ribosomes are comprised of two structural subunits: the large subunit and the small subunit.

Many tandem copies of genes of ribosomal RNA are found in the NOR.

Ribosomes may well predate the role of DNA on an evolutionary timescale.

The structural basis for TnaC-mediated translational stalling wasaddressed by obtaining a 5.8-Å cryo-EM map of the ribosome stalled byTnaC and high concentrations of tryptophan (Fig. 8). The cryo-EM datashows that the nascent chain adopts a distinct conformation in the exittunnel. We applied MDFF to obtain an atomic model of the entire ribosomeand the stalling nascent chain (Fig. 8F). The model allowed us to mapthe contacts between TnaC and the exit tunnel, as well as proposepossible communication pathways that would lead to inactivation of thecatalytic center of the ribosome (the so-called peptidyltransferasecenter, or PTC). One of the main findings was that two criticalribosomal residues at the PTC adopt conformations that are incompatiblewith cohabitation by release factors, which catalyze termination ofprotein synthesis.

Certain nascent peptide chains are able to regulate ribosome functionwhile they are still being synthesized, i.e., when they are still insidethe ribosomal exit tunnel. One of the classical examples is TnaC, aleader peptide of the tryptophanase operon in . At highconcentrations of tryptophan, TnaC stalls the ribosome, inhibitingtermination of its synthesis. Through an intricate gene regulatorymechanism, stalling ultimately leads to the expression of genesresponsible for degrading tryptophan.

When are ribosomes used in the process of protein synthesis

The pars fibrosa filaments are formed of newly transcribed ribosomal RNA.

EF-Tu has three important regions that play a prominent role in itsGTPase activity: Switch I (EF-Tu residues 40--62; numbering)Switch II (80--100) and P-loop (18--23). All of these regions undergocharacteristic conformational changes in EF-Tu. Crystal structures ofEF-Tu in the GTP form display a "hydrophobic gate" formed by residuesVal20 (in the P-loop) and Ile60 (In Switch I) that controls access tothe GTP binding pocket. A schematic representation of this gate isshown in Fig 5A, the crystal structure shown in Fig. 5B. His84 (inSwitch II) needs to enter through this gate to perform its catalyticrole. Thus, this gate must be opened when the right codon-anticodoninteraction is recognized by the ribosome. A crystal structure of EF-Tuoutside the ribosome, but bound to the antibiotic aurodox that isthought to simulate interaction with the ribosome, displays an open gate(Fig. 5D). This antibiotic binds to EF-Tu and stimulates GTPaseactivity, preventing EF-Tu from binding the ribosome, and thereforepreventing translation and killing the cell. The fact that an open gateis found in the case of enhanced GTPase activity hints that thismechanism is used by the ribosome as well.

In order to understand GTP hydrolysis in EF-Tu, we studied theribosome-induced EF-Tu conformational changes that trigger GTPhydrolysis on the factor as revealed by cryo-electron microscopy(cryo-EM) studies. We applied MDFF to obtain an atomic model of a 6.7-Åcryo-EM map of the pre-accommodated 70S ribosome bound to thePhe-tRNAPhe:EF-Tu:GDP ternary complex stalled by the antibiotickirromycin (kir), showed in Fig. 3.

Several copies of genes of ribosomal RNA constitute the Nucleolus Organizer Region (NOR).
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  • For a more detailed description of how ribosomes function, click here

    Nucleolus plays an indirect but crucial role in protein synthesis by assembling the ribosome subunits.

  • Protein Synthesis: So how does protein synthesis make hair

    Smooth ER has no ribosomes attached and is involved in lipid metabolism.

  • Actually, ribosomes are just the sites where proteins are made

    All protein synthesis begins on ribosomes in the cytosol which are unattached to the ER ().

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How do ribosomes translate RNA into proteins? | …

The Role of tRNA
Once the ribosome unit is attached to the mRNA strand, tRNA carries the proper amino acid into the ribosome.

Each tRNA has three unpaired bases that are called the anticodon.

How to Read a Codon Table
Start with the middle circle and go out!

The words on the outside are amino acids which are the building blocks of protein.

Lets use the codon AUG as an example!
The Genetic Code
The first step in making a protein was transcription or to transcribe DNA to RNA.

We call the long chains of bases (A, U, C, G) of the mRNA strand the "Genetic Code".

How do ribosomes translate RNA into proteins

In the cytoplasm!!!

Translation begins when mRNA and the ribosome attach to each other.

Stop and Start Codons
The start codon is always AUG or methoionine.

The stop codon is one of three different codons.

Ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell are like cars, ..

At this point translation stops, the ribosome detaches from the mRNA and
disassembles and the polypetide chain is released (either to the cytosol or to the lumen of the RER).

What function do ribosomes serve in polypeptide synthesis?

Additionally, the 5' cap of the mRNA forms the ribosome binding site.

The tables below summarise the amino acids (and their abbreviations) coded for in the

Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis by the Ribosome

A structure like a ribosome is very complex and yet very minute,
which makes a complete understanding of how it works difficult to achieve, however, rapid progress is being made, helped by
techniques like

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