The hypotheses of interest in an ANOVA are as follows:
Baars, B.J. (2002) The conscious access hypothesis: Origins and recentevidence. 6. 1: 47-52.
In this example, the hypotheses are:
Global Warming Hypothesis. The global warming hypothesis states that the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (caused by mankind) will increase the greenhouse effect, significantly raising global temperatures and having disastrous consequences. Supporters of this hypothesis argue:Some people go on to argue that we need to take drastic action to avoid these predicted consequences of catastrophic increases in temperature. Specifically, they propose drastic limits on energy consumption.
The ANOVA tests described above are called one-factor ANOVAs. There is one treatment or grouping factor with k>2 levels and we wish to compare the means across the different categories of this factor. The factor might represent different diets, different classifications of risk for disease (e.g., osteoporosis), different medical treatments, different age groups, or different racial/ethnic groups. There are situations where it may be of interest to compare means of a continuous outcome across two or more factors. For example, suppose a clinical trial is designed to compare five different treatments for joint pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Investigators might also hypothesize that there are differences in the outcome by sex. This is an example of a two-factor ANOVA where the factors are treatment (with 5 levels) and sex (with 2 levels). In the two-factor ANOVA, investigators can assess whether there are differences in means due to the treatment, by sex or whether there is a difference in outcomes by the combination or interaction of treatment and sex. Higher order ANOVAs are conducted in the same way as one-factor ANOVAs presented here and the computations are again organized in ANOVA tables with more rows to distinguish the different sources of variation (e.g., between treatments, between men and women). The following example illustrates the approach.
Thus, we can conclude ourhypothesis is supported.
Consider an example with four independent groups and a continuous outcome measure. The independent groups might be defined by a particular characteristic of the participants such as BMI (e.g., underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese) or by the investigator (e.g., randomizing participants to one of four competing treatments, call them A, B, C and D). Suppose that the outcome is systolic blood pressure, and we wish to test whether there is a statistically significant difference in mean systolic blood pressures among the four groups. The sample data are organized as follows:
Previous measurements, of course, turned up no iron deficiency. Usingthe lab he developed at the Moss Landing, Martin measured the ironlevels in seawater collected from these regions again and found thatthey were exceedingly low or non-existent. He came up with thehypothesis that iron acts as a sort of micronutrient in phytoplanktonreproduction, and therefore the lack of iron was the sole cause for suchlow phytoplankton levels in HNLC waters. He reasoned that the seas onlyget their iron from the dust originating in windswept lands, and thatwind currents weren't carrying enough iron to these desolate zones."
hypothesis Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary
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where k is the number of comparison groups and N is the total number of observations in the analysis. If the null hypothesis is true, the between treatment variation (numerator) will not exceed the residual or error variation (denominator) and the F statistic will small. If the null hypothesis is false, then the F statistic will be large. The rejection region for the F test is always in the upper (right-hand) tail of the distribution as shown below.
Learn About Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis
The null hypothesis says global warming is natural - Grist
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Hypothesis Testing - Investopedia
10/17/2015 · In this video you will learn what is global null hypothesis testing and why it is important
Testing the Global Null Hypothesis - SAS OnlineDoc, V8
Null Hypothesis - Investopedia
A Statistical Test of the Global Warming Hypothesis
To test his hypothesis, Martin sent his team to Antarctica where theycollected clean water and added iron to some samples and left othersuntreated. The samples were placed in baths on the deck of the ship. The phytoplankton in the iron-dosed jar flourished after a few days.
Null Hypothesis Definition | Investopedia
Consequences. Despite scientific questions, the supporters of the global warming hypothesis have persuaded many national governments to take action. In 1992, most nations agreed in principle to limits on greenhouse gas production. In December 1997, most nations signed the Kyoto Treaty to limit greenhouse gas emissions. The treaty as written would limit the U.S. to the levels of carbon dioxide production it had in 1990, but is less restrictive on developing countries. Critics argue that the U.S. government will have to impose taxes of about 50% on gas, electricity, and heating oil prices to meet these goals. They also argue that millions of jobs will be lost over the next decade if the treaty is implemented.
the Null Hypothesis, and Anthropogenic Global ..
Consequences. Despite scientific questions, the supporters of the global warming hypothesis have persuaded many national governments to take action. In 1992, most nations agreed in principle to limits on greenhouse gas production. In December 1997, most nations signed the Kyoto Treaty to limit greenhouse gas emissions. The treaty as written would limit the U.S. to the levels of carbon dioxide production it had in 1990, but is less restrictive on developing countries. Critics argue that the U.S. government will have to impose taxes of about 50% on gas, electricity, and heating oil prices to meet these goals. They also argue that millions of jobs will be lost over the next decade if the treaty is implemented.The Clinton administration signed the treaty in 1997, but the U.S. Senate soon overwhelmingly approved a resolution indicating that they would not ratify it. The Clinton administration never sent the treaty to the U.S. Senate for ratification, but they did quietly implement some minor provisions through executive orders. In November 1999, national representatives met in Bonn, Germany, to work out details of implementation, including restrictions on land use. By the second such meeting in 2000, negotiations were falling apart due to disagreements on how to credit removals of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. In March 2001, President Bush indicated that he would not seek to implement the Kyoto protocol.
Conduct a Global Test Of Hypothesis To Determine …
A team of researchers partnered with the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI) has developed a new hypothesis for the origin of crater ejecta—debris that is launched out of a crater during meteorite impacts.
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