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– Should be specific (operationalized)

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Operationalization is often used in the social ..

This project’s objectives are to develop and to validate an assessment tool for evidence-based decision making among clerks and residents in pediatrics. The proposed tool is founded on a Bayesian approach to evidence, and assesses whether, and to what degree, beliefs about a patient’s diagnosis or a management strategy are appropriately revised when new information is available. The primary research hypothesis is that the tool will be a valid measure of EBM skills; that is, that clerks and residents who receive EBM instruction should have higher post-rotation scores than pre-rotation scores, and higher post-rotation scores than clerks and residents who do not receive EBM instruction. A repeat assessment will be used to determine the reliability of the tool. Assessments of clerks and residents in other fields (eg, generalinternal medicine, family medicine) will be undertaken to evaluate the generalizability of the approach.

the response to the question must be operationalized before the ..

We will study if variation of expert's answers used to establish the aggregate scoring key influences the ability of items (and of the test) to differentiate expertise. A coefficient of expert variability will be computed for each item. The discriminative power of items will be operationalized as the effect size of the item. A scattergram of effect size (y axis) according to variability coefficients (x axis) will expose the relationship between the two variables. We expect a curvilinear relationship (inverse U shape relation) between item indexes of discrimination and of expert answer variability, with maximum discrimination for items in the middle range of expert answer variability.

Operationalized in this way Hypothesis 1 and Hypothesis …

20/01/2009 · Operational hypothesis' are VERY important

We believe that by establishing academic and professional problems in medical school as the starting (rather than end) point of our study, operationalized as appearances before the school's promotions board, we can fulfill the objective of understanding the relationship between unprofessional behaviors in medical school in a manner that has actionable implications. That is, in addition to establishing the relationship between promotions-board appearance and future unprofessional behaviors, this research will help us identify individual characteristics, orientations, and behaviors that are associated with difficulties in medical school as well as future difficulties, thereby accomplishing the critical objective of enabling educators to identify in real time students who are most "at risk" for future problems and lapses as practicing physicians.

In contrast to current checklist-based SP assessment procedures, that focus primarily on assessing physical exam maneuvers or history taking, the proposed hypothesis-driven assessment procedure brings together all key elements of physical diagnosis, namely generating a limited set of diagnostic hypotheses, anticipating discriminating findings, performing maneuvers and appreciating the findings, and interpreting the finding by proposing a working diagnosis. The assessment task requires students to think in action, while gathering the data. The findings from the scientific literature that were used to build this assessment procedure, namely co-selection, prototypes, discriminating features, and transfer, provide a strong conceptual framework for the proposed procedure. By implementing this approach as an assessment procedure, it also automatically guides learning (knowing that students learn what they are assessed on). It promotes contextualized, integrated, and meaningful learning, and provides, as advocated by medical educators, a more parsimonious, selective approach to physical diagnosis, focusing on key, discriminating findings as well as an array of structural patterns (diagnostic sets) that can facilitate transfer when students go from pre-clinical to clinical settings and from patient to patient. The procedure is based on 18 complaints, 145 physical exam maneuvers, and 59 diagnostic alternatives, a sound foundation upon which students can build their physical diagnosis. The student and class profiles generated from this procedure provide a well-organized and detailed framework for providing feedback to students and educators, where various sources of strengths and weaknesses in physical diagnosis can be parceled out, such as distinguishing anticipation errors from execution or interpretation errors (an important asset in an era of reducing medical errors). An example of a student profile following a case would include: "Good anticipation of clinical findings, some faulty physical exam maneuvers, and incorrect diagnosis." Finally, the assessment procedure and the various scores derived from the observations, such as anticipation scores, diagnostic interpretation scores, and overall physical exam scores (8 profiles), offer the possibility of better distinguishing among levels of expertise. The purpose of this proposed project is to begin to validate this hypothesis-driven assessment procedure for physical diagnosis of medical students and residents. Both a three-step and a four-step procedure will be studied, where the four-step procedure includes generating hypotheses while the three-step procedure does not. Six pilot testing and validation studies are proposed, each testing various aspects of construct validity and reliability:

Theory, hypothesis, and operationalization - UZH

Professionalism in medicine continues to be threatened by changes in the organizational and financial structure of medical practice brought about by managed care, outcomes-based medicine, and pressure for unionization. In the past several years, there have been three new definitions of medical professionalism that reflect this continuing concern: The ABIM Foundation, ACP-ASIM Foundation and European Federation of Internal Medicine: Physician Charter; the NBME Center for Innovation: Behaviors of Professionalism; and the ACGME General Competency: Professionalism. While these definitions have not changed the boundaries of medical professionalism by incorporating new attributes or expectations, they represent considerable professional time devoted to their preparation and, thereby, their level of concern.

The purpose of any research is to determine if your theory is true or not based on statistical analysis. A theory is an educated guess about a relationship but in order for research to be conducted on a theory, it must first be operationalized. To operationalized a theory, all variables must be defined and the methods of conducting the research must be determined. Once this is done, the resulting statement about the relationship is called a hypothesis. The hypothesis is what gets tested in any research study.

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  • A hypothesis cannot be tested until the concepts are operationalized

    A good hypothesis is short and clear should include the operationalized variables being investigated.

  • concepts are operationalized so that they are measurable

    Operationalized in this way Hypothesis 1 and Hypothesis 2 test the same from 790 395 at Rutgers

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD HYPOTHESIS - Indiaclass

    Operationalization - Wikipedia

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Hypothesis Testing in Psychology Research – Brainy …

The Wake Forest University School of Medicine received a 2-year NBME Stemmler Medical Education fund award in June 2001. The goals for this award were to develop a model and the measures to assess professionalism in medical students. The model provides a structure for behavioral assessment of professionalism. The definition of professionalism by Swick, detailing a taxonomy of behaviors of professionalism appropriate for medical students, was used as the basis for developing the behavioral measures for the model. The construct of professionalism development has been the foundation of the assessment model and was refined during the initial project. Professionalism development is conceptualized to be a single dimension scaled from very low to very high and that students can be placed at any point on this scale. The metric is calculated by combining performance values across the behavioral assessments and over the multiple attributes of professionalism.

Hypothesis testing first starts with theory

Abstract
The Script Concordance Test (SCT) is a new tool of clinical reasoning assessment. It has a rich context in a case-based format. Items are made from the questions and actions physicians actually ask and make in clinical practice. The test probes organization of knowledge through requests to interpret data presented in the context of authentic clinical tasks. Inferences are made from examinee scores about the degree of knowledge elaboration required to successfully address problems in the assessed domain. The tool uses an aggregate scoring method that reflects the response variability experts demonstrate when they reason in clinical situations. Scores on each item are derived from the answers given by a criterion group of experts. The meaning of the variation of criterion experts' answers to items as a way to detect clinical expertise is an important research issue. No research has been conducted to formally study what amount of variability optimizes the discriminative power of items and the discriminative power of the test as a whole.

Theories are particular assumptions about the way things are

This project will produce a system for assessing operationalized measures of the communication skills recently identified by the Toronto Consensus Statement. The Consensus Statement was written by the world’s authorities on patient-doctor relationships and identified those "high-impact" communication skills known to positively impact on patient satisfaction and on disease outcome. The study will utilize students at two medical schools, ETSU and Tulane University Medical School (which differ significantly in approach and content around communication skills) in its research.

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