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protein synthesis; neuron; translation; synapse; fragile X

Since many of the proteins made are enzymes, genes control the cell's internal chemistry.

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The most important of these modifications in eukaryotes is

In the adult brain, neurons rapidly communicate through specialised contacts called synapses. The strength of communication at a synapse can be modified as a function of its past use. These changes are mediated, in part, by the local protein synthesis at the synapse.

This is important to the function of many RNA molecules, including RNA enzymes (

A ribonucleoprotein is a structure consisting of protein and RNA (ribonucleic acid).

In prokaryotes, the cytoplasm surrounding the nucleoid is rich in risosomes (and is called the riboplasm) - in bacteria proteins that
make up the ribosome are the most abundant proteins in the cytosol.

In eukaryotes ribosomes can exist free in the cytosol or bound to endoplasmic reticulum (forming rough endoplasmic reticulum, or
RER, so-called because the ribosomes stud its outer/cytosolic surface).

Protein synthesis - Biology-Online Dictionary

Steward O and Schuman EM (2001) Protein synthesis at synaptic sites on dendrites. Annual Review of Neuroscience 24: 299–325.

For initiation of the translation process, the ribosome binds to the mRNA at the start codon recognized by the initiator tRNA. The ribosome then proceeds to the elongation phase of protein synthesis. During this stage, the complexes formed by amino acids are linked to tRNA, sub sequentially to bind to the appropriate codon in mRNA by forming complimentary base pairs with the tRNA anticodon. The ribosome moves from codon to codon along the mRNA. Amino acids are added one by one, translated into polypeptide sequences dictated by the DNA and represented by mRNA. At the end, release factor binds to the stop codon, thus terminating the translation stage and completing the protein synthesis process. The complete polypeptide is released from the .

The amino acids are joined to form proteins by peptide bonds. The formation of peptide bonds requires a good amount of energy. Therefore, in the first phase of translation for protein synthesis, the amino acids are activated in the presence of ATP and linked to their cognate tRNA (transfer RNA). This process is called as charging of the tRNA or aminoacylation of tRNA. If two such charged tRNA are brought close enough, the formation of peptide bond between them is favored energetically. This function occurs inside the , as it contains two sites for subsequent amino acids to bind to and thus be close enough for bonding.

Protein Synthesis and the Lean, Mean Ribosome …

The process of polymerization of amino acids to form a polypeptide is called as Translation. It is the second and final step of protein synthesis. The order into which the amino acids are arranged is defined by the bases in mRNA (messenger). Ribosome is the cellular factory responsible for the protein synthesis. The ribosome consists of structural RNAs and about 80 different . It is in inactive stage and exists as two subunits, one large and other small. The synthesis of begins when the small subunit encounters an mRNA. The ribosome also acts as a catalyst for the formation of bonds.

Wells DG, Richter JD and Fallon JR (2000) Molecular mechanisms for activity‐regulated protein synthesis in the synapto‐dendritic compartment. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 10: 132–137.

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  • Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Transcription - zeroBio

    Alterations of neuronal protein synthesis in humans can cause a variety of behavioural, cognitive and memory deficits.

  • The sequence is a small part of a gene that codes for a protein

    This sequence matches its complimentary codon (triplet of nucleotides) representing an amino acid in the protein-to-be.

  • Protein synthesis | Define Protein synthesis at …

    Includes all the major steps of Protein Synthesis and a quiz at the end

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A Science Odyssey: DNA Workshop: Protein Synthesis

Oppenheim RW, Prevette D, Tytell M and Homma S(1990) Naturally occurring and induced neuronal death in the chick embryo in vivo requires protein and RNA synthesis: evidence for the role of cell death genes. Developmental Biology 138(1): 104–113.

Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

Martin KC, Casadio A, Zhu H et al. (1997) Synapse‐specific, long‐term facilitation of aplysia sensory to motor synapses: a function for local protein synthesis in memory storage. Cell 91(7): 927–938.

Peptide Synthesis - Peptide Protein Research (PPR Ltd)

The CPS 2017 Meeting will follow the biennial tradition of CPS Meetings, being an international gathering of scientists sharing interests in protein chemistry broadly defined, from synthetic methodology to applications in medicine and biomaterials. The meeting will provide an excellent networking platform for all participants and we particularly encourage students and post-docs to attend and benefit from the scientific environment.

BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Amino acids and proteins

Kasahara J, Fukunaga K and Miyamoto E. (2001) Activation of calcium/calmodulin‐dependent protein kinase IV in long term potentiation in the rat hippocampal CA1 region. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276(26): 24044–24050.

What is protein synthesis? - InnovateUs

Huber KM, Kayser MS and Bear MF (2000) Role for rapid dendritic protein synthesis in hippocampal mGluR‐dependent long‐term depression. Science 288(5469): 1254–1257.

Protein Synthesis - Flashcards in GCSE Biology

Frey U, Krug M, Reymann KG and Matthies H (1988) Anisomycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, blocks late phases of LTP phenomena in the hippocampal CA1 region in vitro. Brain Research 452(1–2): 57–65.

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