Chemical equations usually do not come already balanced.
The former is agreen pigment, while the latter refers to the plastids that contain chlorophyll and other useful pigments.
The is the rationale for balancing a chemical equation.
When the Task Group has completed its review and the RO is satisfied as to the scientific correctness and completeness of the document, the document then goes for language editing, reference checking, and preparation of camera-ready copy.
The effect on DNA synthesis occurred at boron concentrations that were associated with atrophy in vivo and shows that boric acid interferes with the production and/or maturation of early germ cells; this offers an explanation for atrophy, but not for inhibited spermiation.
Presenting it as being balanced would be wrong.
Additional mechanistic studies by Ku & Chapin (1994) showed that testicular toxicity and CNS hormonal effects were not due to selective boron accumulation in testis or brain/hypothalamus, with testis boron concentrations at 1-2 mmol/litre.
The data suggest an effect of boric acid on the DNA synthesis activity of mitotic and meiotic germ cells and, to a lesser extent, on energy metabolism in Sertoli cells.
Three quick examples before balancing the equation.
In vitro studies showed no effect on the steroidogenic functions of isolated Leydig cells, supporting the suggestion of a CNS-mediated hormonal effect.
Ku and colleagues (reported in Ku et al., 1993a) found no detectable treatment-related changes in testicular structure in rats induced by consumption of 17.5 mg boron/kg body weight per day for up to 9 weeks.
(a) 2H2 - there are 2 x 2 atoms of hydrogen (a total of 4).
The coefficient of three times the 6 gives the final answer of 18.
It is a complex process, but can be represented in a simplified reaction form.
We put a two in front of the water and this balances the oxygen.
The numerical value placed before the compounds indicates the number of molecules required for the process.
2H2 + O2 --- 2H2OThis balances the equation.
For example; 6 CO2 stands for six molecules of carbon dioxide and 6 O2 means six molecules of oxygen.
Two things you CANNOT do when balancing an equation.
Inhibited spermiation at 4500 mg/kg was reversed by 16 weeks post-treatment, but focal atrophy was detected that did not recover up to 32 weeks post-treatment.
1) You cannot change a subscript.
The authors showed that inhibited spermiation was not due to increased testicular cyclic adenosine monophosphate or reduced serine protease plasminogen activators.
H2O2 is a completely different substance from H2O.
Inhibited spermiation was exhibited at 3000/4500 mg boric acid/kg (5.6 µg boron/mg tissue), whereas inhibited spermiation progressed to atrophy at 6000/9000 mg boric acid/kg (11.9 µg boron/mg testes), with no boron accumulation in the testes to levels greater than found in blood during the 9-week period.
So, it's not the answer to the question that was asked.
Also evaluated were effects of boric acid in Sertoli-germ cell co-cultures on Sertoli cell energy metabolism (lactate secreted by Sertoli cells is a preferred energy source for germ cells) and DNA/RNA synthesis (germ cells synthesize DNA/RNA, and boric acid impairs the synthesis of these nucleic acids in the liver).
Cross-section through a leaf cell
(1993a) in an experiment in which F-344 rats were dosed at 3000, 4500, 6000, or 9000 mg boric acid/kg (26, 38, 52, and 68 mg boron/kg body weight per day) in the feed for 9 weeks and assessed for recovery up to 32 weeks post-treatment.
Here is the equation for photosynthesis:
The most sensitive in vitro end-point was DNA synthesis in mitotic/meiotic germ cells; energy metabolism in germ cells was affected to a lesser extent, which was manifested in vivo as a decrease in early germ cell/Sertoli cell ratio prior to atrophy in the testes.
2) You cannot place a coefficient in the middle of a formula.
Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were not significantly elevated, and mean plasma testosterone levels were within the normal range throughout the study (Lee et al., 1978).
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