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Photosynthesis is the method that plants use to make their own food.

Patel M and Berry JO (2008) Rubisco gene expression in C4 plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 59: 1625–1634.

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Types of Photosynthesis: C3, C4 and CAM

C4 photosynthesis incorporates novel leaf anatomy, metabolic specialisations and modified gene expression. C4 plants typically possess a distinctive Kranz leaf anatomy consisting of two photosynthetic cell types. These are bundle sheath (BS) cells that surround the vascular centres, and mesophyll (M) cells that, in turn, surround the BS cells. A more rare form uses compartmentalisation of dimorphic chloroplasts within a single cell type. In C4 leaves, these structural frameworks functionally separate two sets of carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions. Selective expression of key photosynthesis genes in BS and M cells leads to specific accumulation of key photosynthetic enzymes which catalyse different sets of cell‐type‐specific reactions, enabling these plants to assimilate atmospheric CO2 with very high efficiency. For some plants, C4 photosynthesis has facilitated their adaptation to arid conditions, high temperatures and marginal environments. Understanding the basis of this pathway has applications for improvements in agricultural productivity and alternative fuel development.

Photosynthesis is a process that plants use every minute in order to survive.

Ghannoum O, Evans J and von Caemmerer S (2011) Nitrogen and water use efficiency of C4 plants. In: Raghavendra AS and Sage RF (eds) C4 Photosynthesis and Related CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, vol. 32, pp. 129–146. Dordrecht: Springer.

Photosynthesis: C4 and CAM Pathway | Science Nook

Reaction: photosynthesis of Canadian pondweed (Elodea) Introduction- what is photosynthesis.

Many plants which live in dry conditions have evolved an alternative carbon fixation pathway to enhance the efficiency of rubisco so that they don’t have to keep their stomata open as much, and thus they run less risk of dying due to dehydration. These plants are called C4 plants, because the first product of carbon fixation is a 4-carbon compound (instead of a 3-carbon compound as in C3 or “normal” plants). C4 plants use this 4-carbon compound to effectively “concentrate” CO2 around rubisco, so that rubisco is less likely re react with O2.

In order for plants to take in CO2, they have to open structures called stomata on their leaves, which are pores that allow gas exchange. Plants also lose water vapor through their stomata, which means that they can become dehydrated in dry conditions as they photosynthesize. Because photorespiration (reaction of rubisco with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide) drastically reduces the efficiency of rubisco, which is already a very slow-working enzyme, this means plants in dry conditions are at risk of death by dehydration even as they’re trying to make their own sugar from photosynthesis to stay alive.

C3, C4, and CAM Photosynthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

Hello professor, i think this video, , is very good in explaining the difference among C3,C4 and CAM.

Variables: The variables that might affect the rate of photosynthesis in this experiment are: Temperature: When the temperature rises so does the rate of photosynthesis; this is because as the temperature around the plant rises the enzymes controlling photosynthesis inside the chloroplasts heat up and start moving around faster, the fast moving molecules collide with other fast moving enzymes causing them to react....

O2=Superoxide (Hyperoxide)
The C4 Pathway
Plants that use the C4 Pathway are known as C4 Plants
C4 Plants are: Corn, Sugar Cane, & Crab grass (Plants that use this pathway usually have evolved in tropical climates)
Describing the C4 Pathway
Enables certain plants to fix Co2 into four carbon compounds
Although in the hottest part of the day C4 plants have their stomata partially closed; there are still certain C4 plants that have enzymes that fixes Co2 into four carbon compounds, yes even while the Co2 is high and the O2 is low!
The CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) Pathway
Plants that fix Carbon through CAM:
Jade Plant

These plants open there Stomata at night, the exact opposite of what other types of plants do!
Describing the CAM Pathway
CAM plants take in CO2 at night and fix them into a variety of organic compounds.
During the Day CO2 is released from these compounds into the Calvin Cycle.
Because CAM plants have their stomata open at night, they grow kind of slow because the temperature is low.

The definition of photosynthesis is when plants process water and carbon dioxide to produce glucose by the process of photosynthesis.
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  • Difference between C3 and C4 cycle ..

    Sage RF and Zhu XG (2011) Exploiting the engine of C4 photosynthesis. Journal of Experimental Botany 62: 2989–3000.

  • C4 is the alternative pathway of Calvin cycle ..

    We study C4 photosynthesis, how it evolved, how is it controlled at the molecular level, and how we can engineer it.

  • The C4 pathway of photosynthesis and its regulation

    C4 and CAM plants are plants that use certain special compounds to gather carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) during photosynthesis

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Request (PDF) | The C4 pathway of ph..

Through reading various books and web pages it was made clear that carbon dioxide is definitely one of the raw materials needed for photosynthesis, but I wanted to see whether this is actually true and if carbon dioxide is taken away completely will the plant photosynthesize at all.

C3 and C4 pathways - photosynthetic pathways Calvin cycle

It will be very interesting to see how light will influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants and what will happen if they do not get the required light in order to produce starch .

CO2 in a different photosynthetic mechanism called C4 pathway

Raghavendra AS and Sage RF (eds) (2011) C4 Photosynthesis and Related CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, vol. 32. Dordrecht: Springer.

C4 Pathway - Mesophyll And Bundlesheath Cells - Unacademy

PEP carboxylase is located in the mesophyll cells, on the leaf exterior near the stomata. There is no rubisco in the mesophyll cells. CO2 entering the stomata is rapidly fixed by PEP carboxylase into a 4-carbon compound, called malate, by attaching the CO2 to PEP. The malate is then transported deeper into the leaf tissue to the bundle sheath cells, which are both far away from the stomata (and thus far away from oxygen) and contain rubisco. Once inside the bundle sheath cells, malate is decarboxylated to release pyruvate and CO2; the CO2 is then fixed by rubisco as part of the Calvin cycle, just like in C3 plants. Pyruvate then returns to the mesophyll cells, where a phosphate from ATP is used to regenerate PEP. Thus in C4 plants, C4 carbon fixation has a net added cost of 1 ATP for every CO2 delivered to rubisco; however, C4 plants are less likely to die of dehydration compared to C3 plants in dry conditions.


Ueno O (2001) Environmental regulation of C3 and C4 differentiation in the amphibious sedge Eleocharis vivipara. Plant Physiology 127: 1524–1532.

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