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The use of products such as SeaChem Stability which uses facultative bacteria that can still "eat" wastes at lower pH of 6.5 or less where nitrification starts to slow substantially.
SeaChem Prime would be a good product to bind ammonia (NH3).
See this reference for more:
First start by testing your tap or well water (as stated earlier this can gas out so wait for 1 hour before testing).
If your tap/well water is low in pH with little buffering KH, you will have problems maintaining stable or higher pH if that is desired. Areas that draw their water from rivers, especially that flow in boggy areas or are of volcanic origin may have very low pH/KH.
If tap/well water is the problem or part of the problem you will need to add a buffer.
A buffer such as AAP/SeaChem Malawi Buffer is a blend of carbonate salts designed to increase carbonate hardness, buffer capacity, & pH.
For planted aquariums I prefer the AAP/SeaChem Alkaline Buffer, although this product is not as stable as marine or rift lakes buffer as this buffer is more basic like Baking Soda so regular checks of KH are more important when this buffer is employed.
However, as noted in the KH section, the use of phosphate based products such as neutral regulator SHOULD BE AVOIDED!
While Wonder shells will help with Calcium, GH, & essential positive mineral ions; these are NOT a solution to a unstable pH/KH. At best these only aid in KH maintenance, however they are not as useful for water that is already very low in KH/pH and needs to be brought up., when a buffer is added to an aquarium with a KH below 50-100, while at the same time there are little acid buffers (either natural or chemical), the pH may bounce.
DO NOT Chase the pH, simply add some form of acid buffer (many are described later too) and/or accept your new pH.
A tank with stable pH of 7.3 and KH of 50-80 for a Betta than one with a KH of under 50 and pH of 6.8!!
caused by organic debris/mulm, high fish loads, etc.
This can be spotted by a KH of (for example) that starts out at 80 ppm after cleaning, addition of buffer, and/or correct out of the tap, however KH drops rapidly after the initial measurements.
As well, another symptom is that often ammonia, nitrites, and eventually nitrates will spike or be unstable.
Increasing the frequency of filter media rinsings (in cool de-chlorinated water though, so as to preserve nitrifying bacteria). This may mean rinsing as often as twice a week and this includes filter media inside bio bags (Whisper), carbon inserts (Aqua Clear, Internal Wet/Dry), etc.
Also increasing the amount of buffers added to maintain a stable KH will help (assuming ammonia spikes do not indicate a more serious issue).
Lowering fish levels or other aquarium animal inhabitant populations will most certainly help. As well, watch for snail population "explosions", especially small snails living in filters, under gravel, etc. as these can be a hidden cause of acid producing nitrification and decomposition. under rocks/décor and in canister filters/ Wet-Dry filters. Canister filters in particular if let go without a cleaning more than 6 weeks can buildup a lot of decomposing mulm that will add acids to your water.
The use of SeaChem Purigen can absorb organic compounds prior nitrification and/or decomposition.
As well SeaChem Matrix added to filters can balance the nitrification process with de-nitrification.
; Some driftwood in particular can be full of tannins that will lower pH/KH.
Also decomposing (rotting) driftwood will lower pH and KH more than normal cured driftwood, often a symptom of this besides pH drops includes ammonia, nitrite and eventually nitrate spikes.
, this again can add to decomposition that leads to acid build up (sand tends to worse than gravel here, however gravel can cause this too when too deep.
Even an otherwise normally good #3 grade of gravel that is regularly vacuumed may still harbor organic mulm, this is particularly true of many epoxy coated colored gravels as this coating often starts to loosen and allow organic mulm to be trapped there resulting in rapid KH depletion!
The solution is to often remove ½ the gravel at a time (so as to cause as little interruption of the nitrogen cycle) and either change (usually in the case of colored gravel) or thoroughly wash it.
Further Reference: .
Please see this article for more:
After correcting these problems, you still may need to add a buffer or aragonite bag to your aquarium.
This section not only discusses method for lowering pH & KH, but providing for a more "soft" mineral water environment, assuming this is truly necessary based on what has been explained and documented to this point in the article, especially since much of the concern over GH in particular has not been scientifically proven, and in fact quite the opposite has been shown as per needs for mineral Cations and how GH truly affects fish.
From the of this article:
Soft water or planted aquarium buffering;
Soft water or planted aquariums (or lower pH Community aquariums) are best served by SeaChem Alkaline Buffer for still important KH/pH (about 50 ppm for softwater; 100 for low KH/pH community) stability that even Discus, Bettas, etc need, as pH fluctuations caused by lack of KH buffering can be harmful to these fish as well (since the pH scale is logarithmic, please see the pH section).
I recommend countering the KH Buffer with natural Acid Buffers such as Pillow Moss, Atisons Spa, peat, or Driftwood etc. Or chemical Acid buffers such as SeaChem Acid Buffer, as a healthy lower pH has a balanced equation of both acid & alkaline buffers.
Please note that the before mentioned "Natural" buffers often work as in many ways these counteract general hardness as much or more than carbonate hardness (KH).
One or more of these buffers should also be employed for softwater aquariums for correct/balanced KH/pH chemistry (see the section later in this article dealing with Amazon River, SE Asia Water).
The conservation of matter - Encyclopedia Britannica
In the example above, if we just replace the words shown above with the correct chemical formulas, we will get an unbalanced equation, as shown here:Cu + O2 → CuOTo make things equal, we need to adjust the number of units of some of the substances until we get equal numbers of each type of atom on both sides of the arrow.Here is the balanced symbol equation:2Cu + O2 → 2CuOYou can see that we now have two copper atoms and two oxygen atoms on each side.
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