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The overall balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:

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6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Taking into account all of the above processes, the best current estimate from oceanic transport and chemistry models is that 30% of fossil fuel CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is incorporated in the oceans. We saw in that only 50% of the emitted CO2 actually remains in the atmosphere. That leaves a 20% missing sink. We now turn to uptake by the biosphere as a possible explanation for this missing sink.

The video below shows some of the correlation of pH and Redox:

Bio Chemistry as it relates to Redox Balance:
There are enzymes within a body that are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and others that are reactive nitrogen species (RNS). A disturbance in the oxidation–reduction state of the cell, in which ROS production exceeds antioxidant defenses, is called oxidative stress.
By analogy, nitrosative stress is an impairment in nitric oxide (NO) signaling caused by increased amounts of RNS, which may be caused by, or associated with, a disturbance in the Redox state. As discussed earlier, free radicals are highly reactive molecules with unpaired electrons.

Acceleration of gravity (m s-2)

Cross-section through a leaf cell

The problem begins when either ROS (oxidation) or RNS (Reduction) get out of balance and unfortunately in closed aquarium or pond systems .
An aquarium with poor circulation and low oxygen levels can swing towards poor oxidation, Reduction is halted by the fish’ body inability to reduce these superoxides.

The above calculation still exaggerates the uptake of CO2 by the ocean because it assumes the whole ocean to be in equilibrium with the atmosphere. This equilibrium is in fact not achieved because of the slow mixing of the ocean. shows a simple box model for the oceanic circulation.

Here is the equation for photosynthesis:

Atmospheric composition (mol/mol)

Be present – If the only thing I think about as I’m walking to work is how much I have to do, then I’m already in the wrong state of mind when I walk through that door. It’s hard to succeed at work when I’m stressed about the blog and vice versa. It only adds to the mess if I mull it over all day, so I’m working on letting my brain do one thing at a time.

During normal biochemical processes molecules that are normally reducers give up their electrons (in much the same way a car battery does until re-charged), so without a recharging via the addition of new minerals that are high in these electrons or even processes such as UVC sterilization (or even high PAR lighting), your aquatic biochemistry will suffer and eventually so will your fish!

carbon dioxide + water (+ light energy) → glucose + oxygen
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  • Figure 6-2 The nitrogen cycle: major processes

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The current global rate of increase of atmospheric CO2 is 1.8 ppmv yr-1, corresponding to 4.0 Pg C yr-1. This increase is due mostly to fossil fuel combustion. When fuel is burned, almost all of the carbon in the fuel is oxidized to CO2 and emitted to the atmosphere. We can use worldwide fuel use statistics to estimate the corresponding CO2 emission, presently 6.0 0.5 Pg C yr-1. Another significant source of CO2 is deforestation in the tropics; based on rates of agricultural encroachment documented by satellite observations, it is estimated that this source amounts to 1.6 1.0 Pg C yr-1.

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In medical studies, the enhanced oxidizing environment can facilitate the binding of pathogens or antigens to effector cells (a type of lymphocyte that are actively engaged in secreting antibodies) leading to a hyper-responsive innate immune system.
Previous work has shown that an oxidizing environment leads to enhanced release of super-oxide and nitric oxide, activation and translocation of nuclear transcription factor and enhanced production of cytokines (proteins and peptides that are signaling compounds produced by animal cells to communicate with one another).
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My many observations in both fresh & saltwater lend to this principle too as to how fish, both freshwater & marine respond both short & long term to oxidizers and/or the lack of a constant source of reduction to balance out oxidative stress.

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In further research I noted that a proper Redox Potential improves the health of humans AND fish. A Redox Potential in the -200-400 mV range in human studies has been shown to have the same affect as anti-oxidant preparations as Vitamin C, and many others.

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That said, please read the rest of the article before I over sell any one on a UV Sterilizer, Mineral Blocks (such as AAP Wonder Shells), or drip mineral applicators (products such as SeaChem Replenish can be mixed with water and dripped into the aquarium). As often good aquatic husbandry is a major factor in a healthy Redox Potential (balance).

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Ice core measurements show that atmospheric concentrations of CO2 have increased from 280 ppmv in pre-industrial times to 365 ppmv today. Continuous atmospheric measurements made since 1958 at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii demonstrate the secular increase of CO2 (). Superimposed on the secular trend is a seasonal oscillation (winter maximum, summer minimum) that reflects the uptake of CO2 by vegetation during the growing season, balanced by the net release of CO2 from the biosphere in fall due to microbial decay.

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