What was is it an intermediate of?
What is produced during fermentation that accounts for the bubbles in beer?
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Glycolysis, occurring in the cytosol, breaks glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. So partially oxidizes glucose (C6) into two pyruvate (C3) molecules. The Krebs cycle, which is a catabolic pathway, located in the mitochondrial matrix, converts a derivative of pyruvate (acetyl CoA) into carbon dioxide. In some of the steps of glycolysis and the krebs cycle, dehydrogenase enzymes transfer electrons to NAD+. NADH passes electrons to the electrons transport chain. This chain accepts energized electrons from reduce coenzymes NADH and FADH2. Energized electrons are harvested during glycolysis and Krebs cycle. Those electrons will eventually combine with hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water. The energy released in each step of the chain is used to synthesize ATP by oxidative phophorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation accounts for almost 90% of the ATP generated by respiration. About 10% of the ATP generated for each molecule of glucose oxidized to carbon dioxide and water is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation, in which an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP.
Given that both plants and animals must be protected from ROS, antioxidant molecules made by plants may prove to protect humans from diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and general inflammatory diseases, all of which have been shown to involve oxidative damage to biological molecules. Humans, who can't synthesize the variety and amounts of antioxidants that are found in plants, appear to be healther when they consume large amounts of plant products. These phytomolecule also have other properties, including regulation of gene transcription which can also have a significant effect on disease propensity.
What type of energy is released as electrons travel down the chain?
The nucleus performs two important functions: it controlstheactivity of the cell by determining what proteins are produced and whentheyare produced by the cell; and it also stores the genetic information ofthe cellwhich is then passed on to daughter cells during cell division.
Furthermore, I predict that if the light intensity increases, the rate of photosynthesis will increase at a proportional rate and more oxygen will be produced and therefore the oxygen levels will increase.
What do electrons combine with after travelling down the chain?
The plants and cyanobacteria (which use water as a hydrogendonor and produce oxygen) have Photosystems I and II, whereas theless highly evolved other photosynthetic bacteria(which do notuse water as their hydgrogen donor and do not produce oxygen)have only Photosystem I.
The amino acid side chains that interact with the OEC are shown below. The coordination number for all the Mn ions (including interacting waters) is identical. What is it for Mn1? For Ca? (Note that the Ala 344 is at the carboxy terminus of one of the protein subunits.)
What function does NADPH serve in photosynthesis? | …
What function does NADPH serve in photosynthesis
What is the difference between aerobic respiration and fermentation, in regard to the location of the reactions?
What Is Reduced & Oxidized in Photosynthesis
What I think will happen is as the pond weed is moved further away from the lamp, less bubbles will be produced....
In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis
Hypothesis: The rate of photosynthesis in the water plant hydrilla will change as the rate of carbon dioxide changes.
Bio Final Test Questions (Tests 2 and 3) Flashcards | Quizlet
The OEC can be thought of as a distorted chair with a Mn3-O4-Mn4-O5 back. Bonds to O5 are longer than the other bonds. What might that imply about the strength of the bonds compared to the other metal-oxygen bonds? What is the expected charge of the oxo ligands in the OEC? If the metal-O5 bond lengths are longer than the others, what might that imply about the charge on O5? Would it be consistent with a ligand other than an oxo ligand? What might it be?
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Renewable energy currently makes up only a small slice of the total energy resources used around the world. Here we peek into the origins of two of the renewable fuels currently in use, biodiesel and bioethanol, which together still make up less than one percent of all global energy consumed.
Cellular respiration and photosynthesis Biology …
Background information: Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process of autotrophs turning carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen, using light energy from sunlight.
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Which waters are most proximal to O5? Ultimately an O-O bond must form between two waters. Which are the most likely candidates based on the structure above? Which ion, Ca or Mn, would most likely be involved in electron transfer to water oxygens? Write the electron configuration for both ion. Standard reduction potentials for Mn are shown below. What is the oxidation number of Mn in each compound. Which oxidation state might be sufficient for the oxidation of H2O in the OEC?
used to help recycle NAD from NADH when oxygen ..
The first structure of OEC above shows the two di-m-oxybridges that connect Mn4 to Mn1 and Mn3. This might give us clues as to the mechanism of water oxidation by the complex. To form O2, two water molecules are required as substrates. Presumably they bind as waters between adjacent Mns . What reaction intermediates may be bound to the Mn as water converts to O2? How many electrons are required for the complete oxidation?
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