How is ATP used in photosynthesis? | Yahoo Answers
Looking at the creation of ATP from ADP and how the this biological energy is used.
The Cell, Respiration and Photosynthesis
Metabolic enzymes catalyze catabolic reactions that break down carbohydrates contained in food. The energy released is used to power the cells and systems that make up your body. Excess or unutilized energy is stored as fat or glycogen for later use. Carbohydrate metabolism begins in the mouth, where the enzyme salivary amylase begins to break down complex sugars into monosaccharides. These can then be transported across the intestinal membrane into the bloodstream and then to body tissues. In the cells, glucose, a six-carbon sugar, is processed through a sequence of reactions into smaller sugars, and the energy stored inside the molecule is released. The first step of carbohydrate catabolism is glycolysis, which produces pyruvate, NADH, and ATP. Under anaerobic conditions, the pyruvate can be converted into lactate to keep glycolysis working. Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate enters the Krebs cycle, also called the citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to ATP, the Krebs cycle produces high-energy FADH2 and NADH molecules, which provide electrons to the oxidative phosphorylation process that generates more high-energy ATP molecules. For each molecule of glucose that is processed in glycolysis, a net of 36 ATPs can be created by aerobic respiration.
The light-dependent reactions starts within Photosystem II. When the excited electron reaches the special chlorophyll molecule at the reaction centre of Photosystem II it is passed on to the chain of electron carriers. This chain of electron carriers is found within the thylakoid membrane. As this excited electron passes from one carrier to the next it releases energy. This energy is used to pump protons (hydrogen ions) across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoids. This forms a proton gradient. The protons can travel back across the membrane, down the concentration gradient, however to do so they must pass through ATP synthase. ATP synthase is located in the thylakoid membrane and it uses the energy released from the movement of protons down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. The synthesis of ATP in this manner is called non-cyclic photophosphorylation (uses the energy of excited electrons from photosystem II) .
Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is ..
Photoaututrophs utilize sunlight for energy and CO2 for theircarbon source by this process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS whereby sunlightis absorbed by a complex compound known as chlorophyll andconverted to energy which drives a series of chemical reactionsthat ultimately removes hydrogen from water or other compoundsand then combines the hydrogen with carbon dioxide in a way thatproduces sugars.
Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Photophosphorylation is made possible as a result of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient. During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules. Electrons within these molecules are then raised to a higher energy state. These electrons then travel through Photosystem II, a chain of electron carriers and Photosystem I. As the electrons travel through the chain of electron carriers, they release energy. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoid. A concentration gradient of hydrogen ions forms within this space. These then move back across the thylakoid membrane, down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy released from the movement of hydrogen ions down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
Adenosine triphosphate - Wikipedia
Glycerate 3-phosphate is reduced during the reduction reactions to a three-carbon sugar called triose phosphate. Energy and hydrogen is needed for the reduction and these are supplied by ATP and NADPH + H+ (both produced during light-dependent reactions) respectively. Two triose phosphate molecules can then react together to form glucose phosphate. The condensation of many molecules of glucose phosphate forms starch which is the form of carbohydrate stored in plants. However, out of six triose phosphates produced during the reduction reactions, only one will be used to synthesise glucose phosphate. The five remaining triose phosphates will be used to regenerate RuBP.
In respiration energy is released fromsugars when electrons associated with hydrogen are transported to oxygen (theelectron acceptor), and water is formed as a byproduct. The mitochondriause the energy released in this oxidation in order to synthesize ATP. Inphotosynthesis, the electron flow is reversed, the water is split (not formed),and the electrons are transferred from the water to CO2 and in theprocess the energy is used to reduce the CO2 into sugar. Inrespiration the energy yield is 686 kcal per mole of glucose oxidized to CO2,while photosynthesis requires 686 kcal of energy to boost the electrons from thewater to their high-energy perches in the reduced sugar -- light provides thisenergy.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ..
The NADH and FADH 2 are used to generate ATP by ..
Photosynthesis - Wikipedia
ATP production during photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can ..
PHOTOSYNTHESIS - Estrella Mountain Community …
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So how can these factors have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis? Lets start off with the light intensity. When the light intensity is poor, there is a shortage of ATP and NADPH, as these are products from the light dependent reactions. Without these products the light independent reactions can't occur as glycerate 3-phosphate cannot be reduced. Therefore a shortage of these products will limit the rate of photosynthesis. When the carbon dioxide concentration is low, the amount of glycerate 3-phosphate produced is limited as carbon dioxide is needed for its production and therefore the rate of photosynthesis is affected. Finally, many enzymes are involved during the process of photosynthesis. At low temperatures these enzymes work slower. At high temperatures the enzymes no longer work effectively. This affects the rate of the reactions in the Calvin cycle and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be affected.
LabBench Activity Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
Respiration consists of a complicated series of chemical reactions. In the first stage, glucose is oxidized, and the chemical potential energy of its bonds is transferred to the chemical potential bonds of an ATP molecule. The ATP molecule can then be transported throughout the cell where its stored energy is used to complete various tasks within the cell. This process releases carbon dioxide gas and water.
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