What is the hygiene hypothesis? - Business Insider
World city hypothesis critique essay
The world city hypothesis emphasizes the first meaning of ..
Typically in a hypothesis test, the claim being made is about a population (one number that characterizes the entire population). Because parameters tend to be unknown quantities, everyone wants to make claims about what their values may be. For example, the claim that 25% (or 0.25) of all women have varicose veins is a claim about the proportion (that’s the ) of all women (that’s the ) who have varicose veins (that’s the — having or not having varicose veins).
If you only want to see whether the time turns out to be greater than what the company claims (that is, whether the company is falsely advertising its quick prep time), you use the greater-than alternative, and your two hypotheses are
Friedman's World City Hypothesis
For example, if you want to test whether a company is correct in claiming its pie takes five minutes to make and it doesn’t matter whether the actual average time is more or less than that, you use the not-equal-to alternative. Your hypotheses for that test would be
Which alternative hypothesis you choose in setting up your hypothesis test depends on what you’re interested in concluding, should you have enough evidence to refute the null hypothesis (the claim). The alternative hypothesis should be decided upon before collecting or looking at any data, so as not to influence the results.
Atlantis Location Hypothesis - Crystalinks
Before actually conducting a hypothesis test, you have to put two possible hypotheses on the table — the null hypothesis is one of them. But, if the null hypothesis is rejected (that is, there was sufficient evidence against it), what’s your alternative going to be? Actually, three possibilities exist for the second (or alternative) hypothesis, denoted Ha. Here they are, along with their shorthand notations in the context of the pie example:
Every hypothesis test contains a set of two opposing statements, or hypotheses, about a population parameter. The first hypothesis is called the denoted H0. The null hypothesis always states that the population parameter is to the claimed value. For example, if the claim is that the average time to make a name-brand ready-mix pie is five minutes, the statistical shorthand notation for the null hypothesis in this case would be as follows:
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Atlantis Location Hypothesis
May 2008 Adults lie constantly to kids
Yet while the world continues to urbanize, cities may no longer be the leading edge of complexity per computation or information generated per unit of space, time, energy, or matter.
The Phantom Time Hypothesis, The Theory That Says …
Researchers often challenge claims about population parameters. You may hypothesize, for example, that the actual proportion of women who have varicose veins is lower than 0.25, based on your observations. Or you may hypothesize that due to the popularity of high heeled shoes, the proportion may be higher than 0.25. Or if you’re simply questioning whether the actual proportion is 0.25, your alternative hypothesis is: “No, it isn’t 0.25.”
NOVA - Official Website | A Conversation With E.O. Wilson
A familiar history of physical complexity begins with universally distributed early matter, leading next to large scale structure and superclusters, then to the first galaxies, then to metal-rich replicating stars within special galaxies, then to stellar habitable zones, then to prokaryotic life existing on and around single planets in those zones (miles deep in our crust, miles in the air, and evolved in situ or as planetary ejecta on meteorites in near space), then to eukaryotic life inhabiting a far more restricted domain of the special planets surface, then to human civilizations living in yet more localized domains, then to humans (each with 100 trillion unique synaptic connections) in industrial cities emerging as the leading edge in those civilizations, and perhaps soon, to intelligent, self-aware technology, which will have even more unique connectivity, and inhabit, at least initially, a vastly more local subset of Earths city space.
The Transcension Hypothesis, John M. Smart, 2011
The transcension hypothesis proposes that a universal process of evolutionary development guides all sufficiently advanced civilizations into what may be called "inner space," a computationally optimal domain of increasingly dense, productive, miniaturized, and efficient scales of space, time, energy, and matter, and eventually, to a black-hole-like destination.
Worldmapper: The world as you've never seen it before
But far more important and relevant to science than determining whether intelligence-guided immunity exists is the determination of whether an extensive degree of universe-guided developmental immunity already exists in our current physics, as the transcension hypothesis claims.
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