closer to what Wrangham’s hypothesis demands but still short
Wrangham's major hypothesis is coined the ..
Wrangham made the ability to sleep on the ground a key part of his Cooking Hypothesis. was not only adapted for ground living, , which would have reflected eating soft and easy-to-digest food. Along with organ meats, cooked food is the leading candidate for soft foods. If habilines mastered fire, they would have almost immediately used it for cooking.
In the 1990s, Wrangham began to develop his Cooking Hypothesis, which he more fully elucidated in , published in 2009. Wrangham marshaled numerous lines of evidence to support his hypothesis, which was widely pilloried by his colleagues. Wrangham conceded that the archeological record was scarce for the early control of fire, but he countered that evidence for early fires would rarely survive. Most caves last a quarter million years or so; they are made from soft stone, and the geological dynamics that create caves also destroy them. Also, early humans, just like gorillas and chimpanzees today, and even early hunter-gatherers, would have been constantly on the move, never sleeping in the same place twice. If the first fires were made in the African woodlands and grasslands, the evidence would not survive for long, just as the remnants of today’s hunter-gatherer fires on the African savanna quickly disappear. The gist of Wrangham’s Cooking Hypothesis is this:
Gender Difference - War and Gender
NARRATOR: Because of these revelations one scientist put together what would become one of the most important theories about the origins of human behaviour. Since we are so closely related Richard Wrangham believes chimpanzees can tell us about our past. And what chimpanzee aggressions seems to show is that we like them are programmed to be violent. Wrangham calls his theory the demonic male hypothesis.
Prof RICHARD WRANGHAM: The demonic male hypothesis is one that just responds to some very dramatic observations. We only know of two mammals in the world in which males make deliberate attempts to guard and kill members of neighbouring groups. And those two mammals are chimpanzees and humans.
Why Calorie Counts Are Wrong: Cooked Food Provides …
NARRATOR: In Britain men are twenty four times more likely to kill or assault another person. And two hundred and sixty three times more likely to commit a sexual offence than a woman. Ninety seven percent of prisoners serving life sentences are men. Wrangham’s theory is that violent male behaviour is the result of our shared evolutionary past. He formulated this hypothesis after he’d seen male chimpanzees killing each other at Gombe. Today his argument is accepted by many primatologists. Of all the demonic males there have been at Gombe the most demonic is Frodo.
The demonic male hypothesis was put forward by Richard Wrangham (Harvard University) to explain the violent behaviour seen in both male chimpanzees and male humans. The hypothesis suggests that as only the males of both species illicit this behaviour, that this propensity for male violence has been inherited from our common ancestor 5 million years ago.
Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; …
Uncovering Ancient Clues to Humanity’s First Fires - …
Prof RICHARD WRANGHAM: The demonic male hypothesis is one that just responds to some very dramatic observations.
Archaeologists Find Earliest Evidence of Humans …
Bipedalism - Wikipedia
The Evolution of Diet - National Geographic
Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs
During Cicada Boom, Birds Mysteriously Vanish - The Crux
Wrangham’s hypothesis is more robust and subtle than this essay can do justice to, but I will survey some of the findings, implications, and controversy. Raw food has various nutritional properties that are superior to cooked food, such as vitamins, but because cooked food provides more digestible calories for humans than raw food, it represented an evolutionary advantage. Meat, starches, and seeds are far more digestible when cooked, and are much easier to chew. Today, chimps in will not eat raw seeds of trees, but when a fire passes through the savanna, they search the ground below the trees and eat their cooked seeds.
Our weird lack of hair may be the key to our success - …
Were the dramatic changes in a result of cooked food, or was Turkana Boy as his species became hunters instead of hunted, and the stone tools softened up the meat and plant foods so that he did not need to chew as much? Wrangham co-authored a that began with . It concluded that food processing, cooking in particular, accounted for the effect. Cooked food versus raw food and the number of neurons that can be supported in a brain has been . The primary reason why Wrangham’s hypothesis was initially dismissed was that archeological evidence for fires that long ago is almost nonexistent. When was published, the earliest evidence with wide acceptance only supported fires , where Israel is today, which is more than a million years after Wrangham’s estimated timeframe. Wrangham did what all bold scientists do: he made falsifiable predictions. If it turned out that no evidence of early fires was ever found, his hypothesis could begin looking shaky.
Domestication of animals - Wikipedia
The derision was loud from Wrangham’s colleagues…until evidence of was found at in South Africa by using new tools and techniques. The chortling is subsiding somewhat and scientists are now looking for the faint evidence, and long-disputed evidence of 1.5-1.7 mya controlled fires is being reconsidered, although his hypothesis is still widely considered as being only "mildly compelling" at best. New tools may push back the control of fire to a time that matches Wrangham’s audacious hypothesis. Wrangham cited the Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis as partially supporting the Cooking Hypothesis, but , the energy to power the human brain may not have solely derived from cooked food’s energy benefits. Wrangham has cited numerous lines of evidence, one of which is a that has to find honeybee hives and smoke them out; the humans get the honey and the honeyguide gets the larvae and wax. According to recent molecular evidence, the evolutionary split of the honeyguide from its ancestors happened up to three mya, which supports the early-control-of-fire hypothesis. There is great controversy regarding these subjects, from recent findings that to scientists making arguments that to the social impacts of campfires. This section of this essay will probably be one of the first to be revised in future versions, as new evidence is adduced and new hypotheses are proposed.
Wrangham Hunter Gather War 2012 (1) | Aggression - …
Did the control of fire to , ? Or did merely use it to begin dominating the world? Was cooking the seminal event in the appearance of humans? Those questions may not be definitively answered in my lifetime, and led to the somewhat uncertain title of this chapter. Highly transformative developments coincided with the appearance and dispersal of , which was a radical break from all that came before – biologically, technically, and culturally – and strongly implies great cognitive enhancements. I believe that the control of fire and cooking would leave deep cultural and biological impacts on the human journey, and because barely changed during its nearly two-million year tenure on Earth, both in biology and in Acheulean artifacts, I favor Wrangham’s hypothesis, at least until the Next Big Finding. Just as Einstein said that and that his theories would one day become obsolete, but that their best parts would survive in the new theories, I suspect that significant aspects of Wrangham’s hypothesis will live on in successor hypotheses, and other scientists have been following Wrangham’s lead.
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